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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to birds

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to birds
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Modification of guideline. No mention of GLP.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
An interpretation of Toxicity Response of Bobwhite Quail with Respect to Duration of Exposure
Author:
Shirazi, M. A., R. S. Bennett, and R. K. Ringer
Year:
1994
Bibliographic source:
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 26: 417-424

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
other: USEPA Pesticide Assessment Guidelines, Subdivision E, Hazard Evaluation: Wildlife and Aquatic Organisms. EPA-540/9-82-024
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
No 3 day post exposure period.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Warfarin.
- Analytical purity: 98%.
Dose method:
feed
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and analysis of diet:
DIET PREPARATION
- Description and nutrient analysis of basal diet provided in study report: No.
- Preparation of doses: Test substance was dissolved or suspended in corn oil.
- Type and function of solvent/vehicle: Corn oil.
- Amount of vehicle: 2:98 w/w.


HOMOGENEITY AND STABILITY OF TEST MATERIAL IN DIET
- How often was homogeneity and stability tested: Not specified.
- When and at what dose levels were samples of treated food analyzed for stability and concentration during the study: Aliquots of each concentration were analyzed.
- Results of homogeneity analysis (range of values):
- Nominal concentration (mg/kg feed): 298-5000 mg/kg.
- Concentration analysed (mg/kg feed): All.
- % of nominal: Within 20%.
- Mixing procedure adequate and variance between nominal and actual dosage acceptable (yes/no): Not used unless concentration was within 20% of nominal.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Colinus virginianus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Northern Bobwhite Quail.
- Source: Inhouse colony at USEPA Corvalis Laboratory.
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): One test group 14 days, one test group 16 weeks.
- Sexes used: Juveniles too young to determine sex, adults not specified.

Study design

Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration (if not bolus):
28 d
Remarks:
5 day and 28 day tests
Post exposure observation period:
5-day chemical treatment group had a 3 day post exposure observation period.
No. of animals per sex per dose and/or stage:
10.
Control animals:
yes
Nominal and measured doses / concentrations:
Juvenile 5 day test-298-5000 mg/kg.
Juvenile 28 day test-263-2000 mg/kg.
Adult 28 day test- 263-2000 mg/kg.
All concentrations nominal.
Details on test conditions:
ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: Not specified.


PEN SIZE AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
- Description: 71 x 92 x 22 cm galvanized steel brooders for juveniles, 50 x 75 x 25 cm galvinized steel pens for adults.
- Floor covering: Not specified.
- Suitable to avoid crowding stress: Yes.
- Caging: Grouped by dose.


NO. OF BIRDS PER REPLICATE
- For treated: 10.


NO. OF REPLICATES PER GROUP
- For treated: 1.


TEST CONDITIONS (range, mean, SD as applicable)
- Temperature:
- Brooder temperature: 35° Celcius for the first week, reduced by 2.5°Celcius each week thereafter (juveniles.)
- Room temperature: 25° Celcius.
- Photoperiod: 12 hours light, 12 hours dark for juveniles, 8 hours light, 16 hours dark for adults.


Examinations

Reference substance (positive control):
no

Results and discussion

Effect levelsopen allclose all
Duration (if not bolus):
5 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
3 109 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Duration (if not bolus):
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
238.5 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: juvenile
Duration (if not bolus):
28 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
819.3 mg/kg diet
Conc. / dose based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Remarks on result:
other: adult
Further details on results:
ALC50 values also calculated for all tests.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
LC50s were calculated after Shirazi and Lowrie, 1990, and bootstrap calculations.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The LC50 for 5-day test in juvenile birds was 3109 mg/kg, for 28 day test in juvenile birds it was 238.5 mg/kg and a 28 day test in adult birds it was 819.3 mg/kg.