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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
February 2015 - August 2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: according GLP and OECD guideline, well documented

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2015
Report Date:
2015

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD 422
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
gas under pressure: refrigerated liquefied gas
Details on test material:
liquid brownish

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River Laboratories, Research Models and ServiceGmbH, Sulzfeld, Germany
- Age at study initiation: 10-11 weeks
- Weight at study initiation:
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: individually, following exceptions: During overnight matings, male and female mating partners were housed together. Pregnant animals and their litters were housed together until PND 4 (end of lactation).
- Diet: ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 7d

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20-24
- Humidity (%): 30-70
- Air changes (per hr): 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12

IN-LIFE DATES: From: August 9th, 2011 To:October 6th, 2011

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS:

DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): weekly
- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): water
- Storage temperature of food: RT

- applied as a suspension
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
- according GLP
- stability of the test substance in drinking water for a period of 7 days at room temperature was proven before the start of the study
- method stability of test item in drinking water: UV/VIS spectroscopy
Details on mating procedure:
- Impregnation procedure: cohoused
- If cohoused:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1:1
- Length of cohabitation: overnight for maximum 2 weeks
- Proof of pregnancy: sperm in vaginal smear referred to as day 0 of pregnancy
Duration of treatment / exposure:
The duration of treatment covered a 2-week premating and a mating period in both sexes, approximately 1 week post-mating in males,
and the entire gestation period as well as 4 days of lactation and 2 weeks thereafter in females.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
50, 150, 500 mg/kg bw
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: before the start of the administration period in order to randomize the animals. During the administration period body weight was determined on study day 0 (start of the administration period) and thereafter once a week at the same time of the day (in the morning).

FOOD CONSUMPTION
- weekly
- Food consumption was not determined during the mating period (male and female F0 animals).
- Food consumption of the F0 females with evidence of sperm was determined on GD 0, 7, 14 and 20.
- Food consumption of F0 females, which gave birth to a litter, was determined for PND 4

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: in the course of FOB
- Dose groups that were examined: all

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: end of administration period
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes, anaesthetized using isoflurane (Isoba®, Essex GmbH, Munich, Germany)
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5/sex/dose

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: end of administration period
- Animals fasted: Yes
- How many animals: 5/sex/dose

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: males: after mating, females: 1 day before end of administration period
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes
- Animals fasted: Yes

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: male: postnatal day 0, female: 10d after gestation
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Battery of functions tested: sensory activity / grip strength / motor activity
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: Yes / No / No data
Examinations included:
- Gravid uterus weight: Yes
- Number of corpora lutea: No
- Number of implantations: Yes
- Number of early resorptions: No
- Number of late resorptions: No
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations: Yes, all pubs
- Soft tissue examinations: necropsy observations macroscopically
- Skeletal examinations: No
- Head examinations: No
- Sex ratio
- Pup body weight data
- Pup clinical observations
Statistics:
Blood parameters:
For parameters with bidirectional changes:
Non-parametric one-way analysis using KRUSKAL-WALLIS test. If the resulting p-value was equal or less than 0.05, a pairwise comparison of each dose
group with the control group was performed using WILCOXON-test (twosided) for the hypothesis of equal medians
For parameters with unidirectional changes:
Pairwise comparison of each dose group with the control group using the WILCOXON-test (one-sided) for the hypothesis of equal medians

Urinalysis parameters: WILCOXON-test (one-sided)

Food consumption: DUNNETT-test (twosided)

fertility indices: FISHER'S EXACT test

Proportions of affected pups per litter with necropsy observations: WILCOXON-test

Weight parameters: KRUSKAL-WALLIS test
Indices:
Pup number and status at delivery
Pup viability/mortality
Sex ratio
Pup body weight data

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:yes

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
CLINICAL EXAMINATIONS/ GROSS FINDINGS (dose group 500 mg/kg bw)
• decreased live birth index (64.2%)
• increase number of stillborn pups (35.8%) leading to 88.9% dams with stillborn pups
• increased perinatal loss (36.7%)
• decreased viability index (73%)
• increased number of pups found dead (4 pups)
• increased number of pups missing (cannibalized, 13 pups)
• decreased pup weights of both sexes at postnatal day 1 (-23.0%)
• decreased pup weight change between postnatal day 1 and 4 in pups of both sexes
(-28.5%) were bases on a decreased pup weight change in male pups of -25.4%, and
in female pups of -24.1% (not statistically significant)
• increased number of runts (10 males and 12 females)
• increased number of pups with post mortem autolyzes
• increased number of pups with discolored liver
• increased number of pups with empty stomach

For the other dose groups, no effects were observed.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
150 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: see remarks

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Thus, under the conditions of this Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for reproductive performance and fertility was 500 mg/kg bw/d in male and female Wistar rats. The NOAEL for developmental toxicity in the F1 progeny was 150 mg/kg bw/d.