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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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C14-20 Aliphatics (≤2% aromatic) are poorly soluble and made of constituents with various water solubilities. As a consequence, exposures were performed with Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs). Therefore, the results are based on nominal loadings and no NOEC value can be given.

The 21-day EL50s for Hydrocarbons, C13-C16, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics, based on adult immobilization and reduction in reproduction were >5 mg/L. The 21-day No Observed Effect Loading Rates (NOELRs) based on adult immobilization and reduction in reproduction was 5 mg/L.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C13-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Hydrocarbons, C13-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C17, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Hydrocarbons, C14-C16, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show Hydrocarbons, C14-C20, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C14-C20 (even numbered), n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show Hydrocarbons, C14-C20 (even numbered), n-alkanes, isoalkanes, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, <2% aromatics will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Icosane in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Icosane will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The 21-day NOELR for Isohexadecane in Daphnia magna is >1000.0 mg/L. Results of computer modelling to estimate chronicity in a 21-day freshwater invertebrate study, based on reproduction, show that Isohexadecane will not produce toxicity at or below its maximum attainable water solubility.

The NOELR for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Hydrocarbons, C12-C15, n-alkanes, <2% aromatics was >100% WAF based on mortality and reproduction (no statistical differences between treatment groups).

The NOELR for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposed to Hydrocarbons, C14-C17, n-alkanes,<2% aromatics was >100% WAF based on mortality and reproduction (no statistical differences between treatment groups).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

The aquatic toxicity of was estimated using the Petrotox computer model, which combines a partitioning model used to calculate the aqueous concentration of hydrocarbon components as a function of substance loading with the Target Lipid Model used to calculate acute and chronic toxicity of non-polar narcotic chemicals. Petrotox computes toxicity based on the summation of the aqueous-phase concentrations of hydrocarbon block(s) that represent a hydrocarbon substance and membrane-water partitioning coefficients (KMW) that describe the partitioning of the hydrocarbons between the water and organism.