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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

ABS and ABS from toploader kiln (3 slags): OECD TG 202, Daphnia magna: 48 h EC0 >= 100 g/L, EC50 > 100 g/L (nominal, highest concentration tested) (Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets 2002a, 2003, 2008a)
ABS (2 slags): DIN 38412L30, Daphnia magna: 48 h IC50 > 50 g/L and 48 h NOEC >= 50 g/L (neutralized, nominal) (BfG 2008)
ABS: NF EN ISO 6341, Daphnia magna (2 slags): 48 h-IC50 > 90 g/L (nominal) (LECES 1999)
ABS: non-guideline Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater: aerobic 48 h-EC50s = 14 g/L (nominal), anaerobic 48 h-EC50s = 13 g/L (nominal) (Julli 1999)
ABS: non-guideline Mimachlamys asperrima, saltwater: aerobic 48 h-EC50 = 200 g/L (nominal), anaerobic 48 h-EC50 = 20 g/L (nominal) (Julli 1999)
GBS: OECD TG 202, Daphnia magna: 48 h-LC0 >= 1000 g/L and LC50 > 1000 g/L (nom., highest tested concentration) (Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets 2000c)
BOS (2 slags): OECD TG 202, Daphnia magna: 48 h-EC0 = 33 g/L, 48 h-EC50 = 47 g/L and = 52 g/L (nominal) (Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets 2001a and 2001b)
BOS: non-guideline test, Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater: aerobic 48 h-EC50 = 26 g/L (nom.), anaerobic 48 h-EC50s = 37 g/L (nominal) (Julli 1999)
BOS: non-guideline test, Mimachlamys asperrima, saltwater: aerobic 48 h-EC50 = 20 g/L (nom.), anaerobic 48 h-EC50 = 20 g/L (nominal) (Julli 1999)
BOS (2 slags): DIN 38412L30, Daphnia magna: 48 h IC50 > 12.5 g/L and 48 h NOEC > 12.5 g/L (neutralized, nominal) (BfG 2008)
EAF C: OECD 202, Daphnia magna: 48 h-EC0 = 20 g/L, 48 h-EC50 = 45 g/L (nominal) (Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets 2001c)
EAF C: DIN 38412 L30, Daphnia magna: 48 h NOEC > 80 g/L (neutralized, nominal) (BfG 2008)
EAF C: NF EN ISO 6341, Daphnia magna: 48 h-IC50 > 90 g/L (nominal, highest concentration tested) and 48 h-IC50 = 27 g/L (nominal) (LECES 1999)
EAF S: NF EN ISO 6341, Daphnia magna: 48 h-IC50 = 27 g/L (nominal) (LECES 1999)
SMS (2 slag): OECD TG 202, Daphnia magna: 48 h-EC0 >= 100 g/L, 48 h-EC50 > 100 g/L (nominal) (Hygiene-Institut des Ruhrgebiets 2001f + g)

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
50 g/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
5 g/L

Additional information

From the 18 reports identified to provide information on the short term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates of ferrous slags, 9 of these studies follow the method described in OECD TG 202. The studies of Reis da Silva et al. 2007were not taken into consideration because OECD TG 202 recommends adjustment of pH (preferably to a pH of 6.0 – 9). The leachates in in the studies ofReis da Silva et al. (2007) werenot neutralised and so most likely alkaline and outside the range given in OECD TG 202. So the effects of pH and eluted compounds cannot be differentiated.

In general it has been shown that ferrous slags of all types tested are not toxic to aquatic invertebrates in short term studies.

Although some 48 h-IC50were below 50 g/L, it is suggested to use the concentration of 50 - 100 g/L for PNEC deriviation.