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Environmental fate & pathways

Monitoring data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
monitoring data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
1995-2000
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study using national guideline. Study meets generally accepted scientific principles. Study acceptable for assessment
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Physical and chemical characteristics of blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, and electric arc furnace steel industry slags
Author:
Proctor DM, Fehling KA, Wittenborn JL, Green JJ, Avent C, RD Bigham, Connolly M, Lee B, Shepker TO, Zak MA
Year:
2000
Bibliographic source:
Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 1576-1582.
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual Part A; interim final; EPA/540/1-89/002
Author:
US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Office of Emergency and Remedial Response 1989
Year:
1989
Bibliographic source:
US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Compilation of soil data of the USA, assumed to be representative for EU conditions as well
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of measurement:
background concentration
Media:
soil

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
Information is relevant for comparison of slag concentrations with naturally occuring background values of trace elements in US soils

Study design

Details on sampling:
The concentrations of some trace elements in slag are higher than in soil. Since the trace elements are bound into the slag, only a very small part of the elements are leached.
Since the essential elements calcium, carbon, magnesium, phosphorus and sulfur are ubiquitous in the earth´s crust (US EPA 1989), pursuant to the Assessment Guidance for Superfund (US EPA 1989), they were not evaluated by the authors.
US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Office of Emergency and Remedial Response 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume 1, Human Health Evaluation Manual Part A; interim final; EPA/540/1-89/002; US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC

Results and discussion

Concentrationopen allclose all
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: element Aluminium total
Conc.:
70 995 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Arsenic
Conc.:
7.2 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Barium
Conc.:
588 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Beryllium
Conc.:
0.9 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Chromium (total)
Conc.:
54 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Cobalt
Conc.:
9.1 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: copper
Conc.:
25 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: lead
Conc.:
19 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Manganese
Conc.:
555 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Mercury
Conc.:
0.09 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Molybdenum
Conc.:
0.97 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Nickel
Conc.:
19 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
New Mexico
Substance or metabolite:
other: Selenium
Conc.:
0.2 - 0.8 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Thallium
Conc.:
0.4 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Tin
Conc.:
1.3 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: Vanadium
Conc.:
81 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Country:
United States (the)
Location:
all country
Substance or metabolite:
other: zinc
Conc.:
60 mg/kg dw
Remarks on result:
other: mean in natural soil
Details on results:
See the following Table for comparison with slag levels

Any other information on results incl. tables

Comparison of trace element concentrations in ABS/GBS to their concentrations in soils

 

Trace element

backgroundaMean

backgroundaSD

Slag Arithmetic mean

slag SD

Slag above background?

 

(mg/kg)

(mg/kg)

(mg/kg)

(mg/kg)

 

Aluminum

70995

80376

41245

5781

no

Antimony

0.67

0.66

ND

NS

ND

Arsenic

7.2

6.8

1.3

3.5

nob

Barium

588

520

273

67

no

Beryllium

0.9

1.0

8.2

1.7

Yes

Cadmium

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Chromium

54

57

132

226

yesd

Chromium(VI)

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Cobalt

9.1

8.4

3.0

3.5

no

Copper

25

28

5.3

6.3

no

Lead

19

13

3.6

9.1

nob

Manganese

555

749

5527

4833

yes

Mercury

0.09

0.10

ND

ND

ND

Molybdenum

0.97

1.3

0.8

1.5

yesb

Nickel

19

19

1.4

0.9

nob

Selenium

0.2

0.8

3.9

1.6

yes

Silver

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

Thallium

0.4

0.4

ND

ND

ND

Tin

1.3

1.3

1.6

0.9

nob

Vanadium

81

78

54

90

no

zinc

60

45

20

37

no

aBackground concentrations (Dragun and Chiasson, 1981; cited according to Protor et al. (2000) with Selenium corrected).bMaximum compared to background mean plus 2 SDfor trace elements with detection frequency of less than 50%.cSince detectable in slag but seldom in background assumed to be above background.dNo statistical difference from background but assumed to be above background from "general examination of the data".

ND, not determined because trace element is rare in background and/or slag

Literature: Dragun J, Chiasson A 1981 Elements in North American Soils; Hazardous Materials Control Resources Institutes, Greenbelt MD (cited according to Proctor et al. 2000, not available)

 

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Most of the concentrations of trace elements in slags do not exceed their concentrations in the background soil with the exception of Be (factor of <10), Cr (factor of <5), Mn (factor of 10), Mo (only maximumby a factor of <2), and Se (factor of 20). The maximum concentrations of Sb in slags were evaluated to be above background whereas mean was not. The concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn in slags were below the background levels. Cd and Ag were neither detected in slags nor in the background.
Executive summary:

The background concentrations of trace elements in soils and their concentrations in slags are similar due to their common origin (from mineral rock).

The concentrations of some trace elements in slag did exceed their concentrations in the background soil: Be at a background level of 0.9 +/- 1.0 mg/kg by a factor of <10, Cr at a background level of 54 +/- 57 mg/kg by a factor of <5, Mn at a background level of 555 +/- 749 mg/kg by a factor ofapproximately 10, Mo (rarely, only maximum) at a background level of 0.97 +/- 1.3 mg/kg by a factor of <2, and Se at a background level of 0.2 +/- 0.8 mg/kg by a factor of <20. The maximum concentrations of Sb in slags were evaluated to be above background whereas mean was not. The concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn in slags were below the background levels. Cd and Ag were neither detected regularily in slags nor in the background.