Registration Dossier

Administrative data

toxicity to birds
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
no data
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Only a summary is provided.

Data source

Reference Type:
The Acute Oral Toxicity, Repellency, and Hazard Potential of 998 Chemicals to One or More Species of Wild and Domestic Birds
Schafer, E.W., Bowles, W.A., Hurlbut, J.
Bibliographic source:
Arch. Environm. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 355-382

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Wild-trapped birds were preconditioned to captivity for 2 to 6 weeks and were usually dosed by gavage with solutions or suspensions of the test chemical in propylene glycol, according to methods described by DeCino et al. (1966), Schafer (1972), and Schafer et al. (1967). Other oral dosing methods were occasionally used (pellets, gelatin capsules) but are not noted in the tables (Schafer, 1972). LD50 values were calculated by the method of Thompson (1948), Thompson and Wei! (1952), and Weil (1952).
Repellency tests were conducted by the methods of Starr et al. (1964) and Schafer and Brunton (1971), and R50's (analogous to LDso's) were calculated either by the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxin (1949) or Thompson and Weil (1952).
A repellency-toxicity index (hazard factor) was calculated by assuming that at the Rso level, a 65 g male redwing would consume 50% of his approximate individual maximum food capacity of 1 g. By making this assumption, it was possible to estimate the mg/kg of a chemical that could conceivably be ingested by a redwing at a given Rso level. This value, when divided by the acute oral LD50, provides an index for indicating how likely it would be for acute oral poisoning to occur in the wild. An index value> 1.00 indicates well-accepted toxic agents that have definite potential for causing acute poisoning episodes, an index value ~0.25 ~ 1.00 indicates these compounds with a possible potential, and an index value <0.25 indicates those compounds with little or no potential to cause acute avian poisoning episodes, at least in redwings.
GLP compliance:

Test material


Results and discussion

Effect levels
Duration (if not bolus):
18 h
Dose descriptor:
Effect level:
100 - 133 mg/kg bw
Conc. / dose based on:
not specified
Basis for effect:

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

The acute oral toxicity, repellency, and hazard potential of 998 chemicals to one or more of 68 species of wild and domestic birds was determined by standardized testing procedures. Redwinged blackbirds were the most sensitive of the bird species tested on a large number of chemicals, and an index based on redwing toxicity and repellency may provide an appropriate indication of the probability of acute avian poisoning episodes. Avian repellency and toxicity were not positively correlated (i.e. toxicity varied independently with repellency).

For triethylene tetraamine (CAS 112 -24 -3) the LD50 was estimated based on the food consumption measured over a period of 18 hours. The LD50 is estimated at 101 mg/kg.