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Anthracene oil (< 50 ppm BaP) [CAS no. 90640-80-5] is a UVCB substance consisting of a complex combination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It comprises mainly three-ring aromatic compounds and to a lesser extent PAHs with ≥ four rings. Phenanthrene is main component with a percentage of ca. 26 % (typical concentration) (see Chapter 1.).

Due to the complex composition of UVCB substances, it is technically not practical in many cases to measure their environmental fate properties by applying standard tests. To compensate for this characteristic, available data of related substances are used as substitute/supporting substances.

As anthracene oil is composed of PAH, data for these class of compounds will be used to characterise the environmental fate properties of anthracene oil in case information requirements are not fulfilled by anthracene oil specific data. Data originating from PAH are assessed to characterise properties of anthracene oil satisfactorily.

Phenanthrene is the main component (ca. 25 - 31 %). It will serve as marker substance, if data have to be represented by a distinct value, and if there is no indication that data based on a broader range of substances should be used. This is considered justified as phenanthrene is present in anthracene oil in amounts at least fourfold higher than the other PAH. In addition, phenanthrene can be considered to possess average characteristics compared to the other PAH present in anthracene oil.

Components of anthracene oil < 50 ppm BaP (PAH) are not hydrolysable, since they contain no hydrolysable groups.

They are not readily biodegradable, but few of them are considered to be inherently biodegradable, e.g. phenanthrene, fluorene, acenaphthene. The half-life of four-ring constituents of anthracene oil in two different soils has been determined to be between 199 and 377 days, thus clearly exceeding the vP criterion of REACH Regulation, Annex XIII.

PAH constituents of anthracene oil have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, reliable BCF values in fish ranging below 2000, only for anthracene extending apparently beyond 2000. On the other hand, experimental evidence and experience have demonstrated that PAHs show no biomagnification in the food chain (Lampi and Parkerton 2009) (WHO 2003).

Adsorption to soil is supposed to vary according to individual soil adsorption coefficients, the estimates of which range from about 5000 (acenaphthene) via about 23,000 (phenanthrene) to approximately 90,000 - 100,000 (pyrene, fluoranthene) for the key components.

Reference:

Lampi M and Parkerton T (2009):Bioaccumulation Assessment of PAHs, Review Paper Prepared for CONCAWE by ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Inc., October 2009).

WHO (2003).HEALTH RISKS OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM LONG-RANGE TRANSBOUNDARY AIR POLLUTION, JOINT WHO/CONVENTION TASK FORCE ON THE HEALTH ASPECTS OF AIR POLLUTION. WHO Regional Office for Europe, World Health Organization 2003