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Administrative data

repeated dose toxicity: other route
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Route of exposure not relevant for human

Data source

Reference Type:
Granuloma formation in normal guinea pigs injected intradermally with aluminum and zirconium compounds
Turk, J.L., Parker, D.
Bibliographic source:
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 68:336-340, 1977

Materials and methods

Results and discussion

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

Guinea pigs were injected intradermally with 5 mg, 0.5 mg. and 0.05 mg of the following compounds: zirconium carbonate (ZrCO3), aluminum chlorhydrate (ACH), and zirconium aluminum glycine complex (ZAGS), or 6.5 mg. 0.65 mg, and 0.065 mgof aluminum hydroxide (AI(OH)3), in 0.1 ml of saline. Al(OH)3 produced measurable granulomas with the 6.5 -mg and 0.65 -mg doses; those produced by the 6.5 -mg dose persisted for over 28 days. No increase in skin thickness was detected with ZrCO3. Histologic examination of the Al(OH)3 granulomas revealed large undifferentiated macrophages and occasional giant cells surrounding the area containing the injected material. There was little evidence of infiltration with other inflammatory cells and no evidence of fibrosis, although there was always some degree of central necrosis. While ZrCO3 induced no measurable granulomas, the injection site usually contained a small collection of macrophages that had ingested crystalline material.

Both ACH and ZAGS produced increases in skin thickness even at the 0.05-mg dos. This began 14 days after injection, and reached a maximum at 21 days. Histologically, the lesions showed ganulomas which consisted of shredded bundles of intensely basophilic collagen, which also stained with Weigert's elastic stain. This area contained many giant cells and histiocytes, which were markedly pleomorphic, strongly hyperchromatic, and occasionally phagocytic. This process was succeeded by intense fibrosis. The changes in collagen could be the same as those seen in senile elastosis.