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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study was not in accordance to the standardized method and the exact test concentrations could not be known due to the method of their preparation , the variability of solids in the sludge and the microbial activities.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Effect of aromatic compounds, humic acids and lignins on growth of the earthworm Eisenia foetida
Author:
Hartenstein R
Year:
1982
Bibliographic source:
Soil Biol Biochem, 14(6), 595-599.

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Deviations:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The inhibition of the growth rate and the mortality of Eisenia Foetida  were measured after 2 weeks 
of exposure with the test substance in sludge. 
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
The test substance was purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co, Milwaukee, WI and used without further purification.

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
not applicable

Test substrate

Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Method of mixing into soil (if used): the test substances were  processed for assay by mixing 0.01, 
0.1, 0.5 or 1 g or ml into 100 g sludge which contained 11-15% solids. 
- Method of application to soil surface (if used): About 30g sludge with test substance were placed 
over a ca. 4mm depth of silt loam in a Petri  dish.
- Controls: no data

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Eisenia fetida
- Source: no data
- Age at test initiation (mean and range, SD): no data
- Weight at test initiation (mean and range, SD): each under 10 mg live,  wt
ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: no data
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): no data
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): no data

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: Activated sludge
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
42 d
Post exposure observation period:
no data

Test conditions

Test temperature:
24 +/- 1°C
pH:
no data
Moisture:
no data
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): Petri dish of 20 x 100 mm
- Amount of soil or substrate: about 30 g sludge (ca. 13% solids) were placed a ca. 4 mm depth of silt 
loam
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 2 hatchlings, each under 10 mg live, wt, were added to 
petri dishes
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 5 replicates
- No. of replicates per control: 5 replicates

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil):
- sludge: sludge which contains 11-15% solids. No ther data.
- soil:  silt loam. No other data.

OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: no data
- Light intensity: no data

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : Growth was checked every 2 wks.  
Growth achieved at 2 or 4 and 6 weeks was determined by rinsing the worms in distilled water, 
blotting and weighing. Weight at 6 weeks was evaluated by analysis of variance. Significant differences 
were determined by the Neuman-Keul test.  Mortality was determined by enumeration and said to be 
significant if 5 or more earthworms died.

VEHICLE CONTROL PERFORMED: not applicable

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 5 and 10
- Justification for using less concentrations than requested by guideline: not applicable
- Range finding study: no data   
Nominal and measured concentrations:
The test substance, was processed for assay by mixing 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 g into 100 g sludge which 
contained 11-15% solids. Assuming exactly 13% solids in the sludge, the substance was thus tested at 
concentrations of about 0, 0.1, 1, 4 and 8% (w/w) dry wt, including controls. These figures are used in 
the test, recognizing that the exact concentration could not be known. Solids are not homogeneously 
ditributed in sludge and solids.Concentration varies from sludge sample to sample with time due to 
microbial activies.The test substance concentrations were not measured at the end of the test and the 
toxicity values were based on the nominal concentrations. Worms were transferred to freshly prepared 
substance at 4 weeks.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
LC100
Effect conc.:
40 other: g/kg dry weight
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
10 other: g/kg dry weight
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
growth
Details on results:
GROWTH
Hatchlings in control dishes could gain more than 500 mg in 6 weeks. 
An average wt of 582mg +/- 85 SD, with a coefficient of variation of 14.6%,  was attained by controls in 6 weeks in 45 
similar assays during 16 months. For PMP, the lowest amount which significantly reduced growth rate is 1%.

MORTALITY
Mortality among controls was less than 2%.
For PMP, the lowest amount which significantly caused death was 4% (100% mortality).

Results are reported in % (w/w) dry weight.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
no data
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Significant differences were determined by the Neuman-Keul test.
Mortality was determined by enumeration and said to be significant if 5  or more earthworms died.

Any other information on results incl. tables

- Effect concentration: 4
- Unit of effect concentrations: % (w/w) dry weight


Applicant's summary and conclusion