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Key value for chemical safety assessment

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Several studies/publications are available regarding this endpoint (Carney et al., 1998 and 1999; Corley et al., 2005 and 2008; Cruzan et al., 2004).

DOW (Carney et al., 2005) reported an in vivo toxicokinetic study with pregnant rabbits. Female animals were given orally (gavage) ethane-1,2 -diol doses of 100 and 1000 mg/kg on gestation day 9 or 15. The authors concluded, that the relative insensitivity of the rabbit to EG is due to a lower embryonic exposure to GA; likely related to maternal metabolism, compounded by limited distribution to the embryo during critical periods of development.

The relevant metabilite for developmental toxicity which was observed in rats and mice but not in rabbits appears to be glycolic acid. This metabolite achieved higher concentrations in rats than in rabbits (Carney et al., 2005).

The relevant metabolite for the (sub)chronic nephropathy is oxalic acid which is slowly transported from liver to kidneys and forms Ca-oxalate crystals in the kidney (Corley et al., 2008). These authors also showed strain differences in rats where different sensitivities were related to the accumulation of Ca-oxalate.