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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to other aquatic organisms

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Description of key information

 There is one key study for Bisphenol A which was evaluated to be Klimisch 1, reliable without restriction (Pickford et al., 2000; published as Pickford et al., 2003). In this non-guideline study which lasted 90 days, the NOEC for Xenopus laevis based on larval survival, adult growth and sex ratio was determined to be 500 µg/L, the highest dose of Bisphenol A tested. It shall specifically be mentioned that there was no impact on the frog sex ratio at all treatment concentrations or negative control, while in the positive control group a significant feminisation was observed. Thus, the NOEC for all endpoints was determined to be  ≥ 500 µg/L. 

Additional information

African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) larvae at a developmental stage between 43 and 45, were exposed to nominal Bisphenol A concentrations of 0, 1.0, 2.3, 10, 23, 100, and 500 µg/L, in flow-through conditions until they reached complete metamorphosis (Pickford et al., 2000; published as Pickford et al., 2003). Results are reported based on nominal concentrations. After 90 days, larvae were sacrificed, and total length, snout-vent length and wet weight were measured. Sexual differentiation in larvae at developmental stages 58-66 was evaluated by inspection of gross gonadal morphology. The NOEC for survival, sex ratio, length and weight was determined to be 500 µg/L. There was no significant difference in mean percentage survival between Bisphenol A, positive control (17ß-estradiol), and dilution water control but there was a significantly lower survival rate at 500 µg/L than at 100 µg/L of Bisphenol A. Compared to the dilution control, there was no significant difference between growth, development, and time to metamorphosis in the Bisphenol A treatment groups while there was a significant difference in the positive control with regards to mean time to metamorphosis. There was also a significant increase in total length, snout-length, and wet weight in males between positive control and the dilution control but no noticeable difference in Bisphenol A froglets. Thus, the NOEC for all endpoints was determined to be ≥ 500 mg/L.

A further study with Xenopus laevis was identified (Levy et al., 2004). This study was disregarded due to major short-comings (Klimisch 3, not reliable) such as insufficient replication and erroneous statistical evaluation. Details on the short-comings are provided in the executive robust study summary.