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Toxicological information

Exposure related observations in humans: other data

Administrative data

exposure-related observations in humans: other data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
other information
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented publication meeting basic scientific principles

Data source

Reference Type:
Air concentrations and urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among paving and remixing workers
Väänänen, V. et al.
Bibliographic source:
J. Environ. Monit. 5:739–746

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Exposure assessment. Effect of the test material on the exposure to third substances.
Endpoint addressed:
not applicable
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The exposure of paving workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during stone mastic asphalt (SMA) paving and remixing was evaluated. The effects on the workers’ PAH exposure were also evaluated during the use of an industrial by-product, coal fly ash (CFA), instead of limestone as the filler in the SMA.
GLP compliance:

Test material

Constituent 1
Reference substance name:
Ashes (residues), coal
EC Number:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
Not applicable (UVCB substance)
Ashes (residues), coal
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Coal fly ash


Details on study design:
The PAH exposure was measured by personal air sampling and by analysing the levels of urinary naphthols, phenanthrols and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the workers’ pre- and post-shift urine samples.
Exposure assessment:

Results and discussion

The respiratory PAH exposure of the paving workers (geometric mean (GM) 5.7 mg/m³) was about ten-fold that of the traffic controllers (GM 0.43 mg/m³). The levels of PAH metabolites were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the post-shift urine samples than in the pre-shift urine samples, and the levels of metabolites in the post-shift urine of paving workers were significantly higher than in that of the controls (p < 0.01). Urinary 1-naphthol correlated well with the airborne concentrations of the two- to three-ring PAHs (r = 0.544, p = 0.003) and naphthalene (r = 0.655, p < 0.001), when non-smoking paving workers were tested. A good correlation was observed between urinary 1-OHP and the airborne concentrations of the four- to six-ring PAHs (r = 0.524, p = 0.003) as well as total PAHs (r = 0.575, p = 0.001). The concentrations of 1-OHP and phenanthrols in the urine of the pavers were significantly higher (p < 0.01) during remixing than during SMA paving. The CFA in the asphalt had no effect on the airborne PAH exposure or on the concentrations of the PAH metabolites in the paving workers’ urine.

Applicant's summary and conclusion