Registration Dossier

Identification

Chemical structure
Display Name:
Silicon dioxide
EC Number:
231-545-4
EC Name:
Silicon dioxide
CAS Number:
7631-86-9
Molecular formula:
O2Si
IUPAC Name:
dioxosilane

Type of Substance

Composition:
mono-constituent substance
Origin:
inorganic

Substance Identifiers open all close all

  • Silicon dioxide
  • Silicon dioxide (amorphous)
  • 231-545-4
  • 700-981-1
  • EC 700-981-1
  • 112926-00-8
  • 112926-00-8
  • 112945-52-5
  • 60676-86-0
  • 71889-02-6
  • 7631-86-9
  • Silica
  • Silica Gel
  • Silicagel
  • Synthetic amorphous silica
  • Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS)
  • precipitated silica
  • white carbon black
  • E551
  • ABSIL -100
  • ABSIL-HC
  • AC6120 carrier
  • AEROPERL
  • AEROSIL [Silica, fumed, pyrogenic]
  • ARSIL
  • ART Hydroprocessing catalysts
  • ART Hydroprocessing catalysts
  • Acematt [Silica, precipitated]
  • Acematt [Silica, precipitated]
  • Admafine Silica
  • Aeroperl [Silica, fumed, pyrogenic]
  • Aerosil [Silica, fumed, pyrogenic]
  • Airlica
  • Alusilica
  • ApART™ System, ApART™ Catalyst System
  • BARIACE
  • BARIFINE
  • BECOSORB
  • Britesorb
  • CAB-O-SIL® fumed silica
  • CAB-O-SIL™ Colloidal silica
  • CAB-O-SIL™ silica
  • CAB-O-SPERSE® silica dispersion
  • CHIFFONSIL
  • CP
  • Cabot aerogel
  • Caldic Silica
  • Caldic Silica 02
  • Caldic Silica 02GR
  • Caldic Silica 04
  • Caldic Silica 04GR
  • Caldic Silica 05
  • Caldic Silica 05 MP
  • Caldic Silica 05GR
  • Caldic Silica 06
  • Caldic Silica 06GR
  • Caldic Silica 07
  • Caldic Silica 07GR
  • Caldic Silica 08MP
  • Caldic Silica 08T
  • Caldic Silica 09
  • Caldic Silica 09GR
  • Carplex [Silica, precipitated]
  • Catalyst KD CAT
  • Chameleon Gel
  • Compression Pack™
  • DARACLAR®
  • DAVISIL®
  • DX® Catalyst Platform, DX® Catalyst Technology
  • Denka Fused Silica (DF)
  • EBROSIL
  • EQ-Pak
  • EXP [Silica, precipitated]
  • Egesil [Silica, precipitated]
  • Enova® aerogel
  • Envirogel
  • FLOWING AGENT TP88
  • Fumed Silica
  • GRADE
  • GR® catalysts, technology
  • Gasil
  • HOLLOWY-N15
  • HOP Catalyst
  • High Stability Low Sediment (HSLS), HSLS™ Catalyst Technology
  • IBERSIL
  • ICR Catalyst
  • Indicator Gel
  • Insil [Silica, precipitated]
  • JR-800
  • KONASIL
  • Kovasil
  • Köstropur®
  • Köstrosolid®
  • Köstrosol®
  • Köstrosorb®
  • LC FINING technology, LC FINING™ Catalyst
  • LEVILITE
  • LS™ Catalyst Platform, LS™ Catalyst Technology
  • LUDOX®
  • Lucilite
  • Lumira® aerogel
  • MATREX®
  • MEBU™ Pilot Plant, Mini Ebullating Bed Unit (MEBU)
  • MFIL- 150(G)
  • MFIL- 200(S)
  • MFIL-125
  • MFIL-125(S)
  • MFIL-P (S)
  • MFIL-P(U)
  • MICROD
  • MIZUKASIL P-73
  • MT-500SA
  • Microsil
  • N-IDS carrier
  • Neosil
  • Neosyl
  • NiSAT carrier
  • No specific trade names available: synthetic amorphous silica imported through Ziegler Natta Catalyst preparation, the recipes and trade names of which are company confidential, as they are tailor made for the specific customer.
  • OCR® Catalysts
  • Orange Gel
  • PE
  • PHOENIX™ catalyst, PHOENIX Process
  • Precipitated silica
  • QUARTRON PL
  • REMASOL®
  • ReforMax carrier
  • Reolosil
  • Rescor castable ceramic binders, Resbond adhesive, Thermeez Ceramic Putty
  • Rubingel
  • SATINIER
  • SHIELDEX®
  • SILICA A
  • SILICA GEL
  • SILICA GEL CARRIER SG
  • SILICA GEL CAT LITTER
  • SILICA LC
  • SILICA MICRO BEAD
  • SILICA PERAL
  • SILICON DIOXIDE
  • SILIGEL
  • SIOGEL® white
  • SP
  • SPHERICA
  • SPHERON L-1500
  • SS-SIL
  • SSP
  • STR
  • SYLOBEAD®
  • SYLOBLANC™
  • SYLOBLOC®
  • SYLODENT®
  • SYLOID®
  • SYLOJET®
  • SYLOX®
  • Several Catalyst grades including synthetic amorphous silica, e.g. SYLOPOL®, P.O. CAT CARRIER XPO, Ziegler Natta Catalyst grades
  • SiO2
  • SiO2-Sootstaub
  • Sident [Silica, precipitated]
  • Sident [Silica, precipitated]
  • Silcron
  • Silfil
  • Silica
  • Silica Gel
  • Silicagel
  • Silicon Dioxide
  • Silicon dioxide (SD-B)
  • Silicon dioxide as used in different catalyst mixtures
  • Silicon dioxide in different catalyst mixtures
  • Silizium Dioxid
  • Siliziumdioxid
  • Sipernat [Silica, precipitated]
  • Sipernat [Silica, precipitated]
  • SmART Catalyst System® series, SmART System
  • Sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate
  • Sorb-it
  • Sorbosil
  • Sorbsil
  • StART™ System, StART™ Catalyst System
  • T-Lite
  • TAFOSIL
  • TAVERSIL
  • TIXOSIL
  • TP88
  • TREADSIL
  • TRISYL®
  • TYSIL
  • Thermal Wrap™
  • Tokusil
  • Tolled trading goods
  • ULS
  • ULTRABOND™ fumed silica
  • Ultrasil [Silica, precipitated]
  • Ultrasil [Silica, precipitated]
  • WL [Silica, precipitated]
  • Wet Gel
  • Wetgel
  • White Carbon HCSIL
  • White Gel
  • XWP GEL
  • YH [Silica, precipitated]
  • ZEODENT®
  • ZEOFLO®
  • ZEOFOAM®
  • ZEOFREE®
  • ZEOPOL®
  • ZEOSIL
  • ZEOSYL®
  • ZEOTHIX®
  • ZEO®
  • ZS
  • Zeobead
  • Zeoprep
  • Zeosphere
  • carbon-white
  • fumed silica
  • insert your own names, for example "Aerosil"
  • silica gel
  • silicon dioxide
  • white carbon black
  • I0250
    (No other type specified)
    The silica substance that we are registering is pyrogenic
    (No other type specified)

    Compositions

    Boundary Composition(s) open all close all

    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Snythetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, Silanized SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS), nanomaterial, silanized

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    100 - 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS), nanomaterial

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    100 - 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal struc ture.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal struc ture.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, Silanized SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction di agrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit f or crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Colloidal silica suspension
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, Silanized SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    Silanized SAS
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is described in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes, silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-% typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    > 0 - < 50
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silica, spheroidal nanostructured material
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, Silanized SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    Silanized SAS
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is described in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes, silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-% typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    > 0 - < 50
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    SAS Silanized
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is described in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes, silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-% typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 30 - < 100
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    SAS Silanized
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is described in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes, silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-% typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 30 - < 100
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Legal Entity Composition(s) open all close all

    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 25 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 2.56 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 3.5 - <= 70 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 50 - <= 400 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 110 - <= 880 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.2 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 25 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 2.5 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 3.5 - <= 70 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 800 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 1 760 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.2 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 3.5 - <= 13 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 16 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 19 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 800 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 1 760 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.2 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99.8 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.2 % by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Synthetic amorphous silica, uncoated - small nanoform

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 98 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.2 % by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Synthetic amorphous silica, uncoated - large nanoform

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 99.8 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.2 % by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, untreated_Set 1

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 6 - <= 28 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 34 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 10 - <= 55 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure typically below 100 nm, in some cases necklace-like assembly structures (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 90 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 100 - <= 600 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, untreated_Set 1

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 45 - <= 55 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 60 - <= 85 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 80 - <= 110 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure typically below 100 nm (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 80 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 40 - <= 100 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, untreated_Set 1

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 20 - <= 185 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 50 - <= 195 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 202 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure. In LE composition 3: colloidal silicon dioxide, untreated_Set 1 (Types G, H, I), typically more than 50 % of the constituent particles are in the range 1 - 100 nm (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 20 - <= 50 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, silanized_Set 2

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 163 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 13 - <= 180 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 17 - <= 190 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure typically below 100 nm, in some cases necklace-like assembly structures. In LE composition 4: colloidal silicon dioxide, silanized_Set 2_ <= 1 % (w/w) STA (Types C, D, E, G, I, K), typically more than 50 % of the constituent particles are in the range 1 - 100 nm (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 20 - <= 250 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, silanized_Set 2

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 23 - <= 105 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 29 - <= 110 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 34 - <= 120 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure. In LE composition 5: colloidal silicon dioxide, silanized_Set 2_ 2-4 % (w/w) STA (Types D, E, G), typically more than 50 % of the constituent particles are in the range 1 - 100 nm (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 30 - <= 200 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Legal entity: colloidal silicon dioxide, silanized_Set 2

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 12 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 10 - <= 17 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 14 - <= 21 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that may coagulate to aggregates. Constituent particles are therefore spherical nanoforms in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure typically below 100 nm (see TEM images in IUCLID section 1.4).
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The XRD curve shows a broad distribution of Si-Si bonds indicating that colloidal SiO2 is clearly of amorphous nature containing no detectable silicon dioxide of crystalline structure (detection limit 0.3%).

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 200 - <= 300 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Synthetic Amorphous Silica (SAS)

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Typical composition:
    92.9 %
    Range:
    > 90 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    47.2 nm
    Range:
    >= 29.2 - <= 65.2 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    26.1 nm
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 44 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    9.4 nm
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 27.4 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99 - < 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Typical composition:
    ca. 92.9 %
    Range:
    > 90 - <= 100 %

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    523 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    > 518 - < 528 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    HELPE amorphous silicon dioxide with D99<50 nm

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    ca. 100 %
    Range:
    ca. 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    ca. 12.1 nm
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 20 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    ca. 16.8 nm
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 30 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    ca. 22.3 nm
    Range:
    >= 10 - <= 40 nm
    Percentile:
    D99
    Typical value:
    ca. 27.1 nm
    Range:
    >= 14 - <= 50 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    ca. 125.9 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 80 - <= 200 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS), nanostructured material, silanized

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    100 - 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 10 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 6.8 - <= 2 250 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS), nanostructured material

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    100 - 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The limit of quantifcation is 0.3 % corresponding to a limit of detection of 0.1 % quartz. The maximum quartz content is less than 0.1%.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 10 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 6.8 - <= 2 250 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 10.2 - <= 103.7 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 5.8 - <= 45.2 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 69 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal struc ture.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 67.6 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 40 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 27.8 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal struc ture.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystal linity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    1083_Synthetic amorphous silica comprises a few large and high porous agglomerates composed of very small SiO2 nanoparticles, which are generally spheroidal in morphology.

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    ca. 100 %
    Range:
    %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    1.2 nm
    Range:
    > 1.17 - < 1.23 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    1.6 nm
    Range:
    > 1.57 - < 1.63 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    2.1 nm
    Range:
    > 2.07 - < 2.13 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99.9 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    synthetic amorpous silica
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    100 %
    Crystal system:
    not applicable

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    521 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    > 516 - < 526 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    ca. 99 %
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    20.4 nm
    Range:
    >= 20 - <= 21 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    26.9 nm
    Range:
    >= 25 - <= 28 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    33.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 32 - <= 34 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99.9 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    ca. 99.9 %
    Range:
    > 99.9 - <= 100 %

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    84 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    > 80 - <= 85 m²/g
    Typical volume specific surface area:
    184.8 m²/cm³
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    > 180 - <= 190 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 2.1 - <= 2.3 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    Polydimethylsiloxanes
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    Process description behind surface functionalization / treatment: Dry Process

    -Main features of surface treatment / functionalization process: Introduce the alkyl groups on the
    surface of silica.

    -Process / reaction type: Elimination-Addition (Condensation) Reaction
    Typical Reaction Formula : ([Silica Surface]-OH)2 + HO-((CH3)2SiO)n-H -> ([Silica Surface]-O-)2-
    (Si(CH3)2O)n + 2H2O

    -Purification step: H2O and Residual treatment agent removal process

    -Functions introduced by treatment : Alkyl (Methyl) groups

    Detailed information can be found in the “Attached Information” section of the document.

    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have
    been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is desc
    ribed in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes,
    silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-
    % typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    ca. 100
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    amorphous_SiO2_untreated

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Remarks:
    aggregates and agglomerates of primary nano particles
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    ca. 13.3 μm
    Range:
    > 10 - < 15 μm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    ca. 8.23 μm
    Range:
    > 6 - < 10 μm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    ca. 5.13 μm
    Range:
    > 3 - < 6 μm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    The nanostructured material thus consists of aggregates and agglomerates which are composed of fused primary particles. Even after ultrasonic treatment, aggregates were the constituent particle. There was no physical boundary between the fine features within aggregates. The aggregates are composed of primary particles around 20nm (average aspect ratio 1.18). Free “primary particles” were not observed.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    0 - ca. 0 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous silicon dioxide
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    > 99.7 %
    Range:
    > 99.7 - 100 %
    Description:
    A crystalline structure of Silicon dioxide was not detected in the sample. The amount of crystalline Silicon dioxides was less than 0.3%.

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    ca. 160 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    > 159 - < 160.7 m²/g
    Skeletal density:
    > 2.18 - < 2.19 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    40 nm
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 41 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    9.8 nm
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 41 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    13.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 7 - <= 41 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    ca. 187.35 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 180 - <= 200 m²/g
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 1.602 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    Reaction with Octydecyltrichlorosilane
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:

    - Main features of the surface treatment/functionalisation process:

    The main process involves reacting C18 silane (Octadecyltrichlorosilane CAS: 112-04-9) with silica at room temperature for 12 to 18 hour in Toluene, then washing with methanol and drying at 80 to 120 C for up to 24 hours

    - Molar ratio of each surface treating agent used:
    400-450 g of Octadecyltrichlorosilane/ kg of silica

    - Functionalities introduced by the treatment (e.g. carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl groups):
    Introduction of a C18 alkyl chain.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 30 - <= 100
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Colloidal silica suspension

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    ca. 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 14 - <= 15.8 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 12.5 - < 14 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 11.4 - < 12.5 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 95 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 140 - <= 150 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material_Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 6 - <= 15 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 14 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 25 - <= 750 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide, nanostructured material, silanized_Set 2
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 6 - <= 15 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 14 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, Silanized SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 25 - <= 750 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    Silane Derivatization
    Surface treatment
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    - Main features of the surface treatment/functionalisation process: Coating of silane is a chemical process. In a typical process, alkoxy silanes are added to an aqueous slurry of precipitated silica at elevated temperature and pH. Once introduced a hydrolysis reaction occurs releasing alkoxide moieities from the silane, thus allowing for condensation reaction of the hydrolyzed silanes and silanols on the surface of the silica.

    - The type of process/reaction: silane derivatization.

    - Relevant ranges of process parameters such as reaction conditions (pH, temperature): Silanization is done at high pH (8-11) and high temperature (50 -98 °C).

    - Any purification step: Filtration using filter press or belt filters to remove residual salts and ethanol.

    - Molar ratio of each surface treating agent used: 0.0025-0.014:1 on a mole ratio basis.

    - Functionalities introduced by the treatment (e.g. carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl groups): Thiol (mercapto).
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    > 0 - < 50
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    hydrophilic fumed silica

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    3.5 nm
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 5 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    5.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 3 - <= 10 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    16.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 10 - <= 24 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    318 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 300 - <= 340 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99 - < 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    > 10 - < 40 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    > 15 - < 60 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    > 20 - < 80 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent part cles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal struc ture.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - < 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    > 600 - < 800 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil 200 - hydrophilic fumed silica with surface area approximately 200

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    7.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 2.7 - <= 12.7 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    12.6 nm
    Range:
    >= 7.6 - <= 17.6 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    20.2 nm
    Range:
    >= 15.2 - <= 25.2 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    228 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 226 - <= 230 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil 300 - hydrophilic fumed silica with surface area approximately 300

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    3.5 nm
    Range:
    >= 2.5 - <= 4.5 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    5.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 3.7 - <= 7.7 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    16.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 11.7 - <= 21.7 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    318.36 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 300 - <= 340 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil 380 - hydrophilic fumed silica with surface area approximately 380

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    3.8 nm
    Range:
    >= 2.8 - <= 4.8 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    7.4 nm
    Range:
    >= 4.4 - <= 10.4 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    14.4 nm
    Range:
    >= 9.4 - <= 19.4 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    376.75 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 350 - <= 400 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil M130 - hydrophobic fumed silica with surface area after treatment process - approximately 130

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    11.4 nm
    Range:
    >= 2.4 - <= 20.4 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    18.2 nm
    Range:
    >= 9.2 - <= 27.2 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    31.9 nm
    Range:
    >= 22.9 - <= 30.9 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    124 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 122 - <= 126 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil M200 - hydrophobic fumed silica with surface area after treatment process - approximately 200

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    5 nm
    Range:
    >= 3 - <= 7 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    8.1 nm
    Range:
    >= 5.1 - <= 11.1 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    15.5 nm
    Range:
    >= 10.5 - <= 20.5 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    175.92 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 150 - <= 200 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Orisil SF125 - hydrophobic fumed silica with surface area after treatment process - approximately 125

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    100 %
    Range:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    9.7 nm
    Range:
    >= 3.7 - <= 15.7 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    15 nm
    Range:
    >= 9 - <= 21 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    23.2 nm
    Range:
    >= 17.2 - <= 29.2 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    >= 100 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    140 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 138 - <= 142 m²/g

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    amorphous silica, (spheroidal) nanostructured material, non functionalized

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    ca. 100 %
    Range:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and rangeopen allclose all
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Remarks:
    Two different populations of spherical silica nanoparticles were identified in the sample. The characterization of the first population is provided below.
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    ca. 1.6 nm
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 2.6 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    ca. 2.6 nm
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 5 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    4.3 nm
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 8.1 nm
    Additional information:
    Minimum diameter (nm) 1.0
    Maximum diameter (nm) 8.1
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Remarks:
    Two different populations of spherical silica nanoparticles were identified in the sample. The characterization of the second population is provided below.
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Typical value:
    ca. 17.3 nm
    Range:
    >= 9.3 - <= 19.2 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Typical value:
    ca. 22.5 nm
    Range:
    >= 19.6 - <= 25.4 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Typical value:
    27.9 nm
    Range:
    >= 23.4 - <= 52.1 nm
    Additional information:
    Minimum diameter (nm) 9.3 ± 1.1
    Maximum diameter (nm) 52.1 ± 18.2
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Typical composition:
    >= 99.9 %
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    The investigation of the crystalline morphology of the nanoform confirmed that particles are completely amorphous.

    Specific surface area

    Typical specific surface area:
    ca. 112 m²/g
    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 105 - <= 119 m²/g
    Typical volume specific surface area:
    ca. 269 m²/cm³
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 252 - <= 286 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.4 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    single nanoform
    Name of nanoform:
    Synthetic amorphous silica, spheroidal nanostructured material

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 1.9 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 800 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Surface treatments
    Surface treatment name:
    hydrophilic
    State Form:
    solid: bulk


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of nanoform:
    WACKER Fumed SAS
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of nanoform:
    WACKER Precipitated SAS
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    Set 1
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of length:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 1:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of lateral dimension 2:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Range of aspect ratio (:1):
    >= 1 - <= 1
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: particulate/powder


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    WACKER Silanized SAS
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    In general, SAS contains no detectable amounts of crystalline silica. X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatmentsopen allclose all
    Surface treatment name:
    SAS Silanized
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    The surface treatment agents are alkoxy- or chlorosilanes, silazanes, and/or siloxanes and have been generally registered under REACH as relevant. The use as surface treatment agents is described in the REACH dossiers and exposure scenarios of specific alkoxysilanes, chlorosilanes, silazanes and/or siloxanes. The carbon content at the surface of SAS Silanized is less than 20 wt.-% typically less than 10 wt-%.
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 30 - < 100
    Surface treatment name:
    CAS 75-78-5
    Surface treatmentopen allclose all
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    Reaction of SAS with dichloro(dimethyl)silane, CAS 75-78-5. Typical carbon content below 10%.
    Examples H15 grade 0.8-1.2 % C; H18 grade 4.0-5.2 % C (highest carbon content).
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 30 - < 100
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    WACKER Precipitated SAS
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    WACKER Fumed SAS
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    other: 3-dimensional branched fractal aggregates
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 1 - <= 100 nm
    Additional information:
    The particle forming mechanism for each manufacturing process starts with the formation of liquid nuclei that grow to constituent particles that coagulate to aggregates and solidify. Constituent particles are therefore spherical in nature while aggregates (and agglomerates) show a high fractal structure.
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 50 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    amorphous
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99.7 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. The detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is in the maximum order of 0.3% by weight or below.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 4 - <= 1 000 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 8.8 - <= 2 200 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    >= 1.7 - <= 2.25 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 90 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 30 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    SAS, nanostructured material
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99.9 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. T
    he detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is below the maximum order of 0.3% by weight.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 80 - <= 800 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 200 - <= 1 500 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.24 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    no
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    State Form:
    solid: nanoform


    Constituent 1
    Chemical structure
    Reference substance name:
    Silicon dioxide
    EC Number:
    231-545-4
    EC Name:
    Silicon dioxide
    CAS Number:
    7631-86-9
    Molecular formula:
    O2Si
    IUPAC Name:
    dioxosilane

    Characterisation of nanoforms

    Type of information reported:
    set of nanoforms
    Name of set of nanoforms:
    synthetic amorphous silica, nanostructured material, ST
    Cross-reference
    Reason / purpose:
    justification for reporting set of similar nanoforms

    Shape

    Shape description
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Shape:
    spherical
    Pure shape:
    yes
    Range:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Particle size distribution and range

    Particle size distribution and range
    Shape category:
    spheroidal
    Percentileopen allclose all
    Percentile:
    D90
    Range:
    >= 8 - <= 90 nm
    Percentile:
    D50
    Range:
    >= 5 - <= 50 nm
    Percentile:
    D10
    Range:
    >= 2 - <= 30 nm
    Fraction of constituent particles in the size range 1-100 nm:
    > 99 - <= 100 %

    Crystallinity

    Structures
    Structure:
    amorphous
    Name:
    SAS, nanostructured material, ST
    Pure structure:
    yes
    Range:
    >= 99.9 - <= 100 %
    Description:
    X-ray diffraction diagrams of SAS, show only a broad halo, revealing an X-ray amorphous structure. T
    he detection limit for crystallinity by X-ray is below the maximum order of 0.3% by weight.

    Specific surface area

    Range of specific surface area:
    >= 80 - <= 800 m²/g
    Range of volume specific surface area:
    >= 200 - <= 1 500 m²/cm³
    Skeletal density:
    ca. 2.24 g/cm³

    Surface functionalisation / treatment

    Surface treatment applied:
    yes
    Does the set contain both treated and non-surface treated nanoforms?:
    no
    Surface treatmentsopen allclose all
    Surface treatment name:
    SAS, nanostructured material, ST
    sythetically-spherical-other/phenyl 1
    Surface treatmentopen allclose all
    External layer:
    hydrophobic
    Description:
    DESCRIBE THE PROCESS BEHIND THE SURFACE FUNCTIONALISATION / TREATMENT:
    - Main features of the surface treatment/functionalisation process: product becomes hydrophilic
    - the type of process/reaction (hydrolysis, oxygen treatment, acid washing, etc.): Hydrolysis
    - any purification step: no
    - Functionalities introduced by the treatment (e.g. carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl groups: Phenyl
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 90 - <= 100
    Surface treatment name:
    SAS, nanostructured material, ST
    sythetically-spherical-methacryl 1
    Surface treatment
    Order:
    #1
    External layer:
    hydrophilic
    Description:
    DESCRIBE THE PROCESS BEHIND THE SURFACE FUNCTIONALISATION / TREATMENT:
    - Main features of the surface treatment/functionalisation process: product becomes hydrophilic
    - the type of process/reaction (hydrolysis, oxygen treatment, acid washing, etc.): Hydrolysis
    - any purification step: no
    - Functionalities introduced by the treatment (e.g. carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl groups): Methacryl
    Percentage of coverage of particle surface, %:
    >= 90 - <= 100</