Registration Dossier

Diss Factsheets

Manufacture, use & exposure

Article service life

Documentsopen allclose all

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 7: Metal articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects (machining and handling) in industrial settings - FW STP
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects (machining and handling) in industrial settings - FW direct
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects (machining and handling) in industrial settings - marine
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Low energy handling of massive objects
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Abrasive processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Other hot work operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
Rolling, milling or forging
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Annealing and pickling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC7g: Other metal articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of abrasive tools containing nickel in professional settings
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of abrasive tools
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released):
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Article category (AC):
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released):
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenConsumersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Linked contributing activity:
57e76fe5-7485-4f8d-8c33-f29547613895

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
23.1 Drinking water from nickel-containing kettles
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimate:
3.4 µg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on typical use scenario from Nickel EU RAR (2008-2009) estimated for one person drinking 2L of water obtained entirely from kettles.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimate:
3.4 µg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on typical use scenario from the EU RAR (2008-2009) estimated for one person drinking 2L of water obtained entirely from kettles. This figure is also used for long-term exposure.

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES1 Direct discharge D10
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES2 Direct discharge D100
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
7.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
7.2 First processing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
7.3a. Further processing (hot rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
7.3b. Further processing (cold rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
7.4 Finishing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
7.5 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
7.6 Packing, shipping and storage
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure for raw material handling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure for raw material handling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance, personal samples (n= 13), inhalable measurements corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20) If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.115.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 0.34.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance, personal samples (n= 13), inhalable measurements corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20) If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.115.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 0.34.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12c: Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
25.1 Direct and prolonged contact with skin
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.07 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the recommended maximum release of 0.5 µg Ni/cm2/week Directive 94/27/EC, ˜ 0.07 µg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
24.1a Consumer contact with coins that contain nickel (typical)
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
24.1b Consumer contact with coins that contain nickel (worst-case)
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenConsumersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.09 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.09 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Linked contributing activity:
d4c431e9-05de-4299-9a30-9045a5673f3c

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.29 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.29 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of food contact materials containing nickel used by consumers
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Use of nickel-containing food contact material
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of coinage
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of tools and other nickel releasing surfaces
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of coinage, tools and other release surfaces containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
other: solid (bulk): substance in alloy
Reference substance:
Nickel
Article used by:
consumers
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel containing pipes and taps
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Nickel released to drinking water from nickel containing pipes and taps
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Article category (AC):
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 7: Metal articles
AC 13: Plastic articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel alloys and nickel-coated objects (machining and handling) in professional settings
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Low energy handling of massive objects
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Abrasive processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Hot work operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12c: Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
26.1 Drinking water from nickel containing pipes and taps
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimate:
2.4 µg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on European Union Risk Assessment (2008-2009) estimated for one person drinking 2L of water obtained entirely from drinking water systems. This figure is used for acute and longterm exposure. The scenario assumed a 70 kg person drinking 2L of water
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimate:
2.4 µg/kg bw/day
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on European Union Risk Assessment (2008-2009) estimated for one person drinking 2L of water obtained entirely from drinking water systems. This figure is used for acute and longterm exposure. The scenario assumed a 70 kg person drinking 2L of water

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Manufacture and recycling of massive metal, metal powder or metal compounds; emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.03%; water: 0.02% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Service life of nickel-containing electronic parts and batteries in industrial settings
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12c: Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of matrices containing the substance with no foreseeable release
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 7: Metal articles
AC 38: Packaging material for metal parts, releasing grease/corrosion inhibitors
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Formulation of massive metal or metal powder in alloys emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.007 %; water: 0.003 % (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metal and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Article category (AC):
AC 38: Packaging material for metal parts, releasing grease/corrosion inhibitors
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Use of Ni metal for Thermal Spraying ES1 only air emissions
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
34.1 Raw Material Handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
34.2 Hand operated metal spraying operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
34.3 Thermal spraying/coating operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 7: Industrial spraying
PROC 10: Roller application or brushing
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
34.4 Cleaning and Maintenance Operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and Maintenance
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
SpERC
Remarks:
SPERCs data for “Industrial use in metallic coating” are used (Eurometaux, 2012).

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Assumed to be same as acute exposure as a conservative estimate in the absence of measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Assumed to be same as acute exposure as a conservative estimate in the absence of measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x the long-term exposure estimate based on measured data.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3x the long-term exposure estimate based on measured data.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Professional use of nickel containing semi-finished articles in the production finished articles or of "components" for other articles
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Professional use of nickel containing semi-finished articles in the production finished articles or of "components" for other articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Powder metallurgical production of tungsten carbide containing articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 7: Metal articles
AC 38: Packaging material for metal parts, releasing grease/corrosion inhibitors
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Article category (AC):
AC 38: Packaging material for metal parts, releasing grease/corrosion inhibitors
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Base Metal to be used as an intermediate in further processing such as production of alloys and battery manufacturing
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Manufacture and recycling of massive metal, metal powder or metal compounds; emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.3%; water: 0.02% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Base Metal to be used as an intermediate in further processing such as production of alloys and battery manufacturing

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Article used by:
workers
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 7: Metal articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
other: solid (bulk): substance in alloy
Reference substance:
Nickel
Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC7g: Other metal articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of abrasive tools containing nickel
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12c: Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Handling of abrasive tools
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Base Metal to be used as an intermediate in further processing such as production of alloys and battery manufacturing
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Manufacture and recycling of massive metal, metal powder or metal compounds; emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.3 %; water: 0.02 % (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Base Metal to be used as an intermediate in further processing such as production of alloys and battery manufacturing

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08%; water: 0.01% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Formulation of massive metal or metal powder in alloys emission fraction (release after ,RMM): air: 0.007%; water: 0.003% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Nickel
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: bulk
Reference substance:
Nickel
Article used by:
workers
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 7: Metal articles
Substance intended to be released from article:
no
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Machining and manufacture of metal components
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Name of activity / technique:
Machining and manufacture of metal components
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Name of activity / technique:
Machining and manufacture of metal components
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08%; water: 0.01% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12c: Use of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 µg Ni/cm2/week ˜ 0.03 µg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Not reported
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: SPERC: Processing of massive metal
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Not reported

Service life

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported <10tonnes/year per registrant
Article used by:
workers
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 1: Vehicles
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 01: Other (non intended to be released): no data
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Not reported
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: Not reported

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
24.1a Consumer contact with coins that contain nickel (typical)
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
24.1b Consumer contact with coins that contain nickel (worst-case)
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenConsumersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.09 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.09 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Linked contributing activity:
8f6b7a51-8672-4062-a2b3-7e33f0ed05f3

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Other conditions affecting consumers exposure

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.29 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.29 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: No data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: No data
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 14: Tabletting, compression, extrusion, pelletisation, granulation

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 3: Electrical batteries and accumulators
Article category (AC):
AC 4: Stone, plaster, cement, glass and ceramic articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Formulation of massive metal or metal powder in alloys emission fraction (release after ,RMM): air: 0.007%; water: 0.003% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 2: Machinery, mechanical appliances, electrical/electronic articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES1 Direct discharge D10
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES2 Direct discharge D100
Name of activity / technique:
Integrated steel and iron manufacturing ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
7.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
7.2 First processing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
7.3a. Further processing (hot rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
7.3b. Further processing (cold rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
7.4 Finishing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
7.5 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
7.6 Packing, shipping and storage
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure for raw material handling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure for raw material handling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance, personal samples (n= 13), inhalable measurements corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20) If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.115.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 0.34.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance, personal samples (n= 13), inhalable measurements corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20) If no APF is applied to the long-term value, the long-term exposure value is 0.115.
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift) corrected to take into account the use of RPE (APF 20). If no APF is applied to the acute value, the acute value is 0.34.
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: permanent magnets and articles intended to become permanent magnets after magnetization
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: permanent magnets and articles intended to become permanent magnets after magnetization
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES1 direct discharge D10
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES2 direct discharge D100
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
8.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
8.2 First processing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
8.3a. Further processing (hot rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
8.3b. Further processing (cold rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
8.4 Finishing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
8.5 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
8.6 Packing, shipping and storage
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
outdoor
OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC10a: Widespread use of articles with low release (outdoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES1 direct discharge D10
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES2 direct discharge D100
Name of activity / technique:
EAF carbon steel manufacturing ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
8.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
8.2 First processing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 4: Chemical production where opportunity for exposure arises
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
PROC 23: Open processing and transfer operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature
Name of activity / technique:
8.3a. Further processing (hot rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
8.3b. Further processing (cold rolling)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
8.4 Finishing
Process category (PROC):
PROC 13: Treatment of articles by dipping and pouring
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
PROC 25: Other hot work operations with metals
Name of activity / technique:
8.5 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Name of activity / technique:
8.6 Packing, shipping and storage
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
outdoor
OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Place of use:
outdoor
OtherCondRepopen allclose all

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 90th percentile longterm inhalation exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for steelmaking and casting
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for hot rolling
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

PPERepopen allclose all

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile longterm exposure for annealing, pickling, and welding
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

Technical and organisational conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: 3 x 75th percentile for cleaning and maintenance (full shift)
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
measured data
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Conditions and measures related to personal protection, hygiene and health evaluation

Other conditions affecting workers exposure

Other conditions of use

Exposure of workers

ExpEstopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
other: Acute exposure assumed to be 3X long term calculated with MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
MEASE
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumersopen allclose all
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Name of activity / technique:
28.1 Piercings post containing nickel
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Contributing scenario for the consumers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

ConditionsOfUseRepopen allclose all

Information and behavioural advice for consumers

Exposure of consumers

ExposureEstimationopen allclose all
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
inhalation (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) long-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (internal) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) long-term exposure
Exposure estimate:
0.03 µg/cm²
Exposure estimation method:
other: Based on the requirement of Directive 94/27/EC as amended by EC2004a for a maximum release rate of 0.2 μg Ni/cm2/week ≈ 0.03 μg released Ni ion/cm2 skin/day; assuming area of exposed skin matches area of object and equals 1 cm2.
Type of exposure:
dermal (external) short-term exposure
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) long-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.
Type of exposure:
oral (internal) short-term intake
Exposure estimation method:
other: Oral exposure will be limited to persons with tongue or lip piercings.

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC5: Use at industrial site leading to inclusion into/onto article
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC 0: Other: Use of metal emission fraction (release after RMM): air: 0.08%; water: 0.01% (Specific Environmental Release Categories (SPERC) for metals and metal compounds (Eurometaux, 2010))
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 0: Other: no data

Service life

Article used by:
consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC11a: Widespread use of articles with low release (indoor)
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles

Service life

Article used by:
workers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for the environmentopen allclose all
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12a: Processing of articles at industrial sites with low release
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC12b: Processing of articles at industrial sites with high release
Name of activity / technique:
Machining of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects ES1 STP discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Machining of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects ES2 direct discharge
Name of activity / technique:
Machining of nickel alloys and nickel-coated metal objects ES3 marine discharge
Contributing activity / technique for consumers
Article category (AC):
AC 7: Metal articles
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Process category (PROC):
PROC 24: High (mechanical) energy work-up of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
33.1 Raw material handling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
33.2 Machining operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 26: Handling of solid inorganic substances at ambient temperature
Name of activity / technique:
33.3 Cleaning and maintenance
Process category (PROC):
PROC 0: Other: Cleaning and maintenance
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR
ContribScenEnvirWorkerRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
yes
Application of site specific biological STP sludge on agricultural soil:
yes

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model

Contributing scenario for the environment (related to workers activities)

Conditions of use for the environment

Amounts used, frequency and duration of use (or from service life)

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
water
Effectiveness
Route affected:
air

Conditions and measures related to Biological Sewage Treatment Plant

Biological Sewage Treatment Plant (STP):
no

Conditions and measures related to external treatment of waste (including article waste)

Other conditions of use

Other conditions affecting environmental exposure

Other conditions of use

Releases to waste and the environment

Release to the environment

ReleaseEnvirRepopen allclose all
Release from the site to::
surface water
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor
Release from the site to::
ambient air
Release estimation method:
estimated release factor

Release to external waste

Exposure of the environment

PECopen allclose all
Exposed compartment:
freshwater
Exposed compartment:
sediment (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
marine water
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
sediment (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (freshwater)
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (marine water)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
top predators' prey (marine water)
Exposed compartment:
sewage treatment plant
Exposed compartment:
agricultural soil
Exposure estimation method:
exposure estimation tool
Exposure estimation tool name:
EUSES
Exposed compartment:
predators' prey (terrestrial)
Exposure estimation method:
other: The methodology applied to assess secondary poisoning is extracted from the EU RA for Nickel (2008-2009). A detailed report on the methodology used to derive the PNECoral and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) are provided in Appendix D3 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: Calculations according to the methodology defined in the EU RA for Nickel.
Exposed compartment:
air
Exposure estimation method:
other: Median value. An assessment of predicted level of compliance for this sector on site-specific measured or predicted exposures is provided in Section 5 of Appendix D5 of the CSR.
Exposure estimation tool name:
other: EUSES, GPM, IFDM air model
ContribScenWorkersRepopen allclose all

Contributing scenario for the workers

Conditions of use for workers

Product (article) characteristics

Other product (article) characteristics

Amounts used (or contained in articles), frequency and duration of use/exposure

Other conditions

Technical and organisational conditions and measures

TechCondRepopen allclose all
Effectiveness
Route affected:
dermal