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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
test concentration below max. water solubility
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
EPA OTS 797.1400 (Fish Acute Toxicity Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Specific details on test material used for the study:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): methyl methacrylate (MMA)
- Physical state: clear liquid
- Analytical purity: 99.9%
- Lot/batch No.: 5-0590-88
- Storage condition of test material: at room temperature
- other: supplier Rohm and Haas
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Measurements made at 0 and 96 hrs
Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
Diluter stock solutions of MMA were prepared in deionized water to a concentration of 12,700 mg/L. This was the highest achievable concentration of methyl methacrylate in test water of the stock solution.
A proportional diluter system was used to deliver the solution into each test chamber.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: rainbow trout
- Source: Obtained from Mt Lassen Trout Farms
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): Control group fish had a mean length of 42 mm (±2.9)
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): Control group fish had a mean weight of 1.2 g (±0.25)
- Feeding during test: no food


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 96 hours
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): yes
- Type and amount of food: no food
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Post exposure observation period:
no
Hardness:
45 - 48 ppm
Test temperature:
12 ±1 °C
pH:
7.7 - 7.9
Dissolved oxygen:
8.8 - 8.9 ppm
Conductivity:
100 - 120 µMhos/cm
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Test concentrations (nominal): 6.5, 13, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L
Test concentrations (average measured): 5.4, 9.6, 20, 40 and 79 mg/LThe highest concentration which was achieved with the stock solution in this test system of the flow through test was 79 mg/l . This is not the expected water solubility limit of methyl methacrylate in the test medium as the water solubility of methyl methacrylate in dest water is 15.300 mg/l
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Type of flow-through: proportional diluter system described by Mount and Brungs (1967).
- Renewal rate of test solution: 6.5 tanks per day
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2
- Biomass loading rate: 0.12 g/L/day in the control chamber

TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: ABC dilution water
- Total organic carbon: < 1 ppm
- Particulate matter: 0.4 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 48 - 56 mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 100 - 120 µMhos/cm
- Intervals of water quality measurement: Temperature (°C ) dissolved oxygen (mg/L), and pH were measured in all test solutions at 0, 48 and 96 hours of testing.
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
40 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
behaviour
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 79 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: highest concentration tested
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Methyl methacrylate was testd in a valid guideline study in test concentrations up to 79 mg/l. In this test no toxicity was observed. LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout is > 79 mg/L MMA.
Executive summary:

Methyl methacrylate was tested in a valid guideline study in test concentrations up to 79 mg/l (measured concentration). In this test no toxicity was observed. LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout is > 79 mg/L MMA.

This is not the expected water solubility limit of methyl methacrylate in the test medium as the water solubility of methyl methacrylate in dest. water is 15.300 mg/l but the highest concentration which could be achieved with the available diluter system in the flow through test. Therefore methyl methacrylate was tested fare below the water solubility and below the classification limit of < 100 mg/l, but no toxicity was observed.

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to fish
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study with acceptable restrictions
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: EPA-660/3-75-009
GLP compliance:
not specified
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Supplier: Mathieson, Colemnan, and Bell, practical grade
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Measurements made:
- at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in the static test
- at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in the flow through test
Vehicle:
no
Test organisms (species):
Lepomis macrochirus
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: bluegill sunfish
- Source: commericial fish vendor
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): juvenile
- Length at study initiation (length definition, mean, range and SD): 3.65 ±0.72 cm
- Weight at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 0.90 ±0.22 g


ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 weeks
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): 22 °C under continuous flow -through conditions
- Type and amount of food: combination of Clark's trout diet and frozen brine shrimp (Artemia salina) purchased from San Francisco Bay Brand Company
- Feeding frequency: daily
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): mortality was <10%
Test type:
other: conducted under static as well as flow-through conditions
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
96 h
Remarks on exposure duration:
additionally 24 h toxicity was estimated and set in correlation to 96 h toxicity to determine the efficacy for predicting acute toxicity to fish in shorter exposure periods.
Hardness:
31.2 mg/L as CaCO3
Test temperature:
22 ±1 °C (hourly recorded)
pH:
no data, but pH control was conducted at the beginning and end of the test (Corning pH meter)
Dissolved oxygen:
>34% of saturation in the static test system
>85% of saturation in the flow-through system
Conductivity:
88 µS/cm
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
a.) static test
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 19 L glass jars
- Aeration: no
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2

b.) flow-through test
- Test vessel:
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: 15 L glass chambers filled with 11 L test solution
- Type of flow-through: Sage Syringe pumps equipped with one or more gas-tight Hamilton syrings to minimize volatilization
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): 50 mL/min per chamber or 6.54 tanks volumes per day
- No. of organisms per vessel: 10
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 2
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 2


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water: tap water
- Particulate matter: 48 mg/L
- Chlorine: <0.005 mg/L
- Alkalinity: 23.3 mg/L as CaCO3
- Conductivity: 88 µS/cm
- Culture medium different from test medium: no


TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: yes
- Test concentrations: no data
- Results used to determine the conditions for the definitive study: no data
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
283 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (initial)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
initial concentration
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: static; 95% C.I. = 267 - 300 mg/L
Key result
Duration:
96 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
191 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality (fish)
Remarks on result:
other: flow-through; 95% C.I. = 170 - 206 mg/L
Sublethal observations / clinical signs:

LC50 estimates obtained under static and flow through conditions

 

Pooled LC50* [mg/l] and 95 % Confidence limits**

Exposure

[h]

static

flow through

11

-

-

420

 

21

-

-

373

 

41

-

-

367

 

81

-

-

360

 

161

-

-

360

 

241

 

 

356

 

242

283

(267 – 300)

264

(240 – 290)**

482

283

(267 – 300)

264

(240 – 290)**

722

283

(267 – 300)

264

(240 – 290)**

962

283

(267 – 300)

191

(170 – 206)**

* From duplicate tests

first experiment

second experiment

Conclusions:
Methyl methacrylate was tested in acute toxicity to fish tests under static and flow through conditions. Test concentrations and toxicity were determined at least after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. LC 50 (96 h) was 283 mg/l (mean initial concentration) under static conditions and 191 mg/l (arithmetic mean concentrations) under flow through conditions.
LC50 (96h) fish: > 100 mg/l
Executive summary:

Methyl methacrylate was tested in acute toxicity to fish tests under static and flow through conditions. Test concentrations and toxicity were determined at least after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. LC 50 (96 h) was 283 mg/l (mean initial concentration) under static conditions and 191 mg/l (arithmetic mean concentrations) under flow through conditions.

LC50 (96h) fish: > 100 mg/l

Description of key information

Two flow through acute toxicity studies to fish are available with methyl methacrylate. Bowman (1990) tested oncorynchus mykiss for 96 hrs in concentrations up to 79 mg/l (meas. conc.) . No mortality was observed in this test.

A second study (Bailey et al, 1985) tested methyl methacrylate in concentrations above 100 mg/l to lepomis macrochirus. LC 50 (96 h) was evaluated with 191 mg/l (arithm. mean meas.conc.).

Based on these results LC50 fish (96h) of methyl methacrylate is > 100 mg/l.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
100 mg/L

Additional information

There are several studies available on the acute toxicity to fish of methyl methacrylate. The most reliable investigation showed a 96 h-LC50 of >79 mg/L using rainbow trout as test organism. No mortality was observed at 79 mg/L, the highest achievable concentration under the test conditions in the flow through test with a stock solution of max. water solubility, while a significant number of fish showed aberrant swimming behaviour at that concentration after 72 and 96 h. Bailey et al. (1985) published data of an investigation using Lepomis macrochirus as test organism. The results showed after 96 hours of exposure an LC50 of 283 mg/L and 191 mg/L under static and flow-through conditions, respectively. This is consistent with other literature data.