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EC number: 265-045-2
CAS number: 64741-45-3
A complex residuum from the atmospheric distillation of crude oil. It consists of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers predominantly greater than C20 and boiling above approximately 350°C (662°F). This stream is likely to contain 5 wt. % or more of 4- to 6-membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons.
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods:
Substance is a
hydrocarbon UVCB. Standard tests for this endpoint are intended for
single substances and are not appropriate for the risk assessment of
this complex substance. For the purpose of risk assessment, soil PNECs
for hydrocarbon blocks have been derived using aquatic PNECs and the
equilibrium partitioning method (EqP) using representative structures.
toxicity to terrestrial arthropods:
toxicity to terrestrial plants:
long-term toxicity to soil microorganisms:
a key one-generation avian reproduction test (OECD 206; KS = 2), mallard
ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; 5/sex/dose) were exposed to weathered
North Slope crude oil (WEVC) at concentrations of 0; 200; 2000; and
20,000 mg WEVC/ kg diet ad libitum for 22 weeks. At 8 weeks
animals were photostimulated to induce reproduction. Eggs were incubated
and hatchlings were observed for two weeks. At the end of the study
animals were sacrificed. Adult breeder parameters statistically measured
included body weights, growth, feed consumption, feed wastage, clinical
chemistry, haematology, and organ weights. Reproduction parameters
measured included egg production, cracked eggs, set eggs, fertile eggs,
viable eggs, eggs hatched, eggshell thickness, and eggshell strength.
Hatchling parameters evaluated were the number of 14 -day survivors,
hatchling body weights, and 14-day survivor body weights.
female ducks died in the 200 and 20,000 mg WEVC/kg diet groups but based
on necropsy these mortalities were deemed to not be substance-related.
No other mortalities occurred. Chronic
ingestion of diets containing up to 20,000 mg WEVC/kg diet did not cause
overt mortality or grossly observable signs of toxicity to mallards. No
adverse effects were noted in the ability of parental birds to produce
viable embryos, and no apparent effects were seen on the hatchability of
these eggs, or on the survival or fitness of the hatchlings. Slight
reductions in eggshell thickness and strength were observed in the
20,000 mg/kg diet group; however, given the magnitude of the observed
change, it is likely of minimal biological significance. It was
determined that the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was
20,000 mg WEVC/kg diet (Stubblefield et al., 1995)
number of supporting non-standard laboratory studies have been conducted
to evaluate the effect of Heavy Fuel Oil contamination on egg
hatchability. Mallard duck (Ana platyrhynchos) eggs treated with
5 μl or more of Bunker C applied to the shells showed drastically
reduced survival and hatching success reduced to 36% (KS = 2;
Szaro,1979). Ducklings which hatched from coated eggs, however, showed
no significant weight differences from controls.
eggs were produced by Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
exposed to a single dose of 200 mg of Bunker C fuel oil in the first 4
days following its administration. Hatchability of the eggs was also
drastically reduced but returned to normal after 4 days. The
NOAEL was determined to be 100 mg Bunker C fuel oil (KS= 2; Grau et al.,
ducks exposed to treatments of Bunker C fuel oil ranging from 1 to 12
mL/kg/ day for 28 days by gizzard applications showed no effects on
mortality or body weight. The
NOAEL was therefore determined to be 12 mL/kg/day (KS = 2; Rocke et al.,
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