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Toxicological information

Health surveillance data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
health surveillance data
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: The study is a review article of comaprision of salts,the study did not mention any guidelines.The interpretation of results comes from the survey data.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
review article or handbook
Title:
Sodium and potassium
Author:
Melvin J.fregly
Year:
1981
Bibliographic source:
Ann.rev.Nutr. 1981.1:69-93

Materials and methods

Study type:
human medical data
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline required
Principles of method if other than guideline:
None
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Sodium chloride
EC Number:
231-598-3
EC Name:
Sodium chloride
Cas Number:
7647-14-5
Molecular formula:
ClNa
IUPAC Name:
sodium chloride
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
1647-14-5
IUPAC Name:
1647-14-5
Details on test material:
No data

Method

Type of population:
general
Ethical approval:
not specified
Details on study design:
No data

Results and discussion

Results:
The infants who recieved NaCl instead of sugar in their formula ingested sodium at a concentration of 2000-2500 mEq/Liter (116-146 g of NaCl/liter).The 3g/kg of sodium chloride is lethal and smaller amounts have known to kill.Another author suggested thet the probable lethal dose for adult human ranges from 0.5 to 5.0 g/Kg..The visible edema occurs in the healthy adult man with 35-40 g of NaCl per day when consuming an ordinary diet.

Any other information on results incl. tables

None

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The probable lethal dose for adult ranges from 0.5 to 5.0 g/kg .The visible edema occurs in the healthy adult man with 35-40 g of NaCl per day.
Executive summary:

This is a review article on the acute toxicity of sodium chloride.The study was done the general people and infant where NaCl was accidently used in place of sugar in preparing infant feeding formulas.deaths have also resulted from its use as an emetic where vomiting where vomiting did not occur.The use of hypertonic saline injuctions to induce abortion has also resulted in the death of the of some women. In addition, an excessively high concentration of sodium ions resulting from sodium bicarbonate therapy for salicylate poisoning or for excessive diarrhea and vomiting in infants has produced permanent brain damage and other pathologic effects . The major pathologic findings in deaths resulting from NaCl toxicity were subarachnoid hemorrhages and multiple small intracerebral hemorrhages, shrinkage of the convoluted tubular cells from the basement membrane of the kidneys, and diffuse reddening of the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine.

The author stated that 3 g/kg is regarded as lethal and that smaller amounts have been known to kill. The probable lethal dose for adult humans ranges from 0.5 to 5.0 g/kg. The visible edema occurs in the healthy adult man with 35-40 g of NaCI per day.