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Please be aware that this old REACH registration data factsheet is no longer maintained; it remains frozen as of 19th May 2023.

The new ECHA CHEM database has been released by ECHA, and it now contains all REACH registration data. There are more details on the transition of ECHA's published data to ECHA CHEM here.

Diss Factsheets

Toxicological information

Toxic effects on livestock and pets

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Administrative data

toxic effects on livestock and pets
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Already evaluated by the Competent Authorities for Biocides and Existing Substance Regulations.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference Type:
Trace elements in soils and pasture herbage on ferms with bovine hypocupraemia
Leech, A.F. and Thornton, I.
Bibliographic source:
J agric. Sci., Camb. (1987), 108, 591-597

Materials and methods

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
Dicopper oxide
EC Number:
EC Name:
Dicopper oxide
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
copper (I) oxide
Constituent 2
Reference substance name:
Cu2+ as Cuprous Oxide
Cu2+ as Cuprous Oxide
Details on test material:
Purity: No data

Results and discussion

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Executive summary:

The importance of molybdenum, sulphur, iron, zinc and cadmium dietary antagonists to ruminant copper metabolism was investigated at the farm level in an attempt to explain the widespread occurence of bovine hypocupraemia in recent years.

From 22 of the most severely hypocupraemic regions of England, six areas with as wide a range of geological, pedological and topological situations as possible were selected for detailed field work. This involved the collection of topsoil and herbage samples from approximately 15 farms per area with hypocupraemic stock. Possible causal factors of bovine hypocupraemia were then considered on the basis of three citeria: critical concentrations of copper, molybdenum, sulphur, iron, zinc and cadmium in pasture herbage; Cu:Mo rations in herbage; and copper availability predictions for ruminants.

Absolute copper deficiency and molybdenum-induced bovine hypocupraemia were clearly demonstrated at the farm level. The results also confirmed that dietary sulphur, in particular, plays a significant yet previously unrecognized role in the widespread incidence of bovine hypocupraemia in industrialized Britain. Antagonism due to iron orgination from soil-contaminated herbage was evident, but not common. No evidence was found to support the occurrence of zinc- or cadmium-induced hypocupraemia in the areas examined.