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EC number: 200-835-2
CAS number: 75-05-8
Brooke, et. al. (1984) reported a 96-hour, flow-through LC50 value of
1640 mg/L for acetonitrile in Fathead minnow, (Pimephales promelas).
Nishiuchi (1981) reported a 48-hour TLm value of 730 mg/L for
acetonitrile in Medaka, high-eyes, (Oryzias Latipes).
Henderson et al (1961) reported a 96 -hour, static LC50 value of 1850
mg/L for acetonitrile in Bluegill, (Lepomis macrochirus).
Henderson et. al (1961) reported a 96-hour, static LC50 value of 1000
mg/L for acetonitrile in Fathead minnow, (Pimephales promelas).
Henderson et al (1961) reported a 96 -hour, static LC50 value of 1650
mg/L for acetonitrile in Guppy, (Poecilia reticulata).
Ewell et. al. (1996) reported a 96-hour LC50 value of >100 mg/L for
acetonitrile in Fathead minnow, (Pimephales promelas).
Juhnke and Luedemann (1978) reported 48-hour, static LC50 values for
acetonitrile in Golden orfe, (Leuciscus idus melanotus) from two
different laboratories of 5850 mg/L and 7050 mg/L.
In a guideline (OECD 203) study under GLP conditions, MCSI of Japan
(1996) reported the 96 -hr LC50 for acetonitrile in fish (Oryzias
latipes) to be >100 mg/L (nominal conc.).
TLm values and partition coefficient of acetonitrile
a) Ten fish of Himedaka were used in 2 liter of the solution.
Time course of accumulated dyes at gill and intestine of fish
Note. 1) Fish (carp) was exposed to a solution of dye (1,000 mg/liter).
2) Dye accumulated to organ was eluted and determined by
Number of red corpuscles of fish kept under three different conditions
Note. Fish (carp) was exposed to each solution, and the number of red
corpuscle in fish blood was determined by Coulter counter after 24 hours
in case of A and immediately after fish had died in case of B and C.
Tonagai et. al. (1982) reported a 48-hour, static median tolerance limit
(TLm) value of 1000 mg/L for acetonitrile in Medaka, high-eyes, (Oryzias
The acute toxicity of acetonitrile to fish has been studied in several
freshwater species. Reported LC50 values range from 730 mg/L to 7050
mg/L. Brooke et al (1984) reported the only flow-through
study with a 96-hour LC50 value of 1640 mg/L in Pimephales promelas
(Fathead minnow). The lowest acute toxicity value reported for fish is
a 48-hour TLm value of 730 mg/L reported by Nishiuchi in Oryzias
latipes (Medaka, high-eyes), however given that it was not possible
to obtain full text details from this paper, this data is disregarded.
Tonogai et al (1982) reported an 48-hour LC50 value of
>1000 mg/L in the same species, which is consistent with findings in
other fish species tested. The reason for the low value in the
Nishiuchi study is not clear.
The acute toxicity of acetonitrile to fish has been studied in
several freshwater species. Brooke et al, 1984 conducted exposure using
flow-through apparatus; all other studies have used a static design. The
fish toxicity data for acetonitrile were reviewed in the EU Risk
Assessment Report (2000). A summary of the available data is shown in
the table below. A single additional study has been obtained since the
EU RAR. In a guideline (OECD 203) limit study under GLP
conditions, MCSI of Japan (1996) reported the 96 -hr LC50 for
acetonitrile in fish (Oryzias latipes) to be >100 mg/L (nominal
The acetonitrile data base includes
values for Pimephales promelas, Lepomis macrochirus, Leuciscus idus
melanotus, Poecilla reticulata and Oryzias latipes. The
lowest value is the 48 h TLm, 730 mg/l, reported in IUCLID as toxicity
for Oryzias latipes while all 48-96 h LC50 values are
in the g/L range. Information on additional fish species can be obtained
from other sources. The WHO report (1993) includes 14 acute LC50 values
on seven fish species. Significant values are 24-48 h LC50 values
higher than 1g/L for Oryzias latipes, and two 48 h LC50s,
730 and 880 mg/L on Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon
idellus respectively. The data set includes flow through and static
test as well as different water pH and hardness conditions. Relevant
differences on acetonitrile toxicity regarding water quality conditions
were not observed.
The lowest acute toxicity value
reported for fish is 730 mg/l as reported by Nishiuchi, although
discrepancies between the fish species showing this toxicity appear when
comparing IUCLID 2000 and the other reviews. The original paper has been
submitted but it is in Japanese; however, the title and the scientific
names also appear in English and indicate that the toxicity data are for
the carp, Cyprinus carpio, and therefore is reported as toxicity for
carp in the table below. In any case, the fish species is not relevant
for this assessment and the value will be used as the lowest acute fish
Toxicity of Acetonitrile to Fish (EU Risk Assessment Report, 2000)
Pimephales promelas(fresh water)
Static nominal concentration
Used as additional information
Henderson et al., (1961)
(cited in UK and IPCS reports)
Ewell et al., (1986)
Lepomis macrochirus(fresh water)
(cited in IPCS)
Poecilia reticulata(fresh water)
Henderson et al, (1961)
Oryzias latipes(fresh water)
Tonogai et al., (1982)
Cyprinus carpio(fresh water)
Pimephales promeles(fresh water)
Brooke et al, 1984
Centre for Lake Superior Environmental studies
Leciscus idus melanotus(fresh water)
Juhnkeand Ludemann (1978)
(cited in UK and IPCS report)
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