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Long-term toxicity to fish

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Reference
Endpoint:
fish early-life stage toxicity
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Nov. 27, 1986 - Feb. 6, 1987
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
comparable to guideline study
Remarks:
(Well-documented study report comparable to OECD 210 Fish Early Life Stage Test Guideline (1992))
Justification for type of information:
Category Approach; composition of test material identical to reference substance LAS. LAS provides suitable read across for LAB Sulfonic Acids as both form the identical chemical species in aqueous solutions at neutral (physiological) pH, namely, the LAS ion (C10-13linear alkyl benzene-SO3-) and would be expected to have similar eco-toxicological properties.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 210 (Fish, Early-Life Stage Toxicity Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
no
Remarks:
(Conducted in compliance with the Laboratory Policy on good laboratory practice, which was based on the Principles of GLP set forth in the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals (1982))
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
Representative test vessels were sampled five times during the study, and two days before introduction of eggs.
Details on test solutions:
A stock solution of 920 mg a.i. LAS/L was prepared every seven days. Test solutions were made by a mini-diluter system. Analyses indicated that the concentrations of the test solutions were on average 85-115% of nominal.
Test organisms (species):
Oncorhynchus mykiss (previous name: Salmo gairdneri)
Details on test organisms:
Eggs and sperm from Chirk trout hatchery, North Wales, were obtained from 6 male and 2 female individuals, over 4 year old, rainbow trout and transported to the laboratory where the eggs were fertilized and added to test vessels within 2 hours of stripping. After swim-up, each fish was fed commercial trout feed at 8% body weight per day spread over 2-3 feedings.
Test type:
flow-through
Water media type:
other: Carbon-filtered tap water
Total exposure duration:
72 d
Hardness:
70-133 mg/L CaCO3
Test temperature:
8.5-11.5 degree C
pH:
7.3-7.9
Dissolved oxygen:
8.8-10.3
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominally: 0, 0.2, 0.35, 0.62, 1.12 and 2.0 mg a.i./L.
Mean measured concentrations: 0.03, 0.23, 0.35, 0.63, 0.95 and 1.9 mg a.i./L.
Details on test conditions:
Fertilized eggs were exposed in a mini-diluter test system on stainless steel mesh beds in 0.5 L test vessels. Eggs were exposed to LAS within two hours of fertilization

Each test vessel contained 30 eggs at the start of the test. Any dead life stages were removed daily. Test vessels were not aerated and were maintained in darkness until hatching and then maintained under dim lighting.

LAS test solutions were dosed continuously at 25 mL/min, equivalent to approximately 15 volume replacements per day. There were 5 concentrations and a control with 2 replicates per exposure concentration.

The temperature in representative test vessels was recorded daily. The pH, dissolved oxygen and total hardness (as CaCO3) concentrations were determined twice weekly in representative concentrations.

Exposure was continued until several days post-swim-up, 72 days post-fertilization. The responses recorded included the survival of eggs, time to eyed egg stage, time to hatch, survival to time of hatch, survival of fry (post-hatch to swim up), final length and weight of fry, time and extent of swim-up (external feeding) and overall survival.
Key result
Duration:
72 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
0.23 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
NOECs based on mean measured concentrations (mg a.i./L) were:
survival of eggs to eyed stage 0.63
time to eyed egg stage no effect at highest concentration
survival of eggs to hatch 0.23
time to hatch no effect at highest concentration
survival of sac-fry 0.95
overall survival 0.23
final wet weight of sac-fry 0.35
final dry weight of sac-fry 0.35
fry length 0.35
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOECs were derived from comparisons of treatment means with controls using Dunnett’s Procedure.
Conclusions:
The lowest NOEC for Salmo gairdneri over 72 days was 0.23 mg a.i./L for overall survival and survival of eggs to hatch.
Executive summary:

Fertilized eggs of Salmo gairdneri were exposed to concentrations of 0.03, 0.23, 0.35, 0.63, 0.95 and 1.9 mg a.i./L (mean measured), for 72 days. The responses recorded included the survival of eggs to eyed stage, time to eyed egg stage, survival of eggs to hatch, time to hatch, survival of sac-fry, overall survival, final wet and dry weight of sac-fry, fry length, and time and extent of swim-up (external feeding). The lowest NOEC value found was 0.23 mg a.i./L based on survival of eggs to hatch and overall survival. The data are for C11.6 LAS.


Description of key information

LAS provides suitable read across for LAB Sulfonic Acids as both form the identical chemical species in aqueous solutions at environmental pH’s, namely, the LAS ion (C10-13 linear alkyl benzene-SO3-).

Five key studies are presented. In the first study (Pickering and Thatcher 1970; van de Plassche et al 1999), fathead minnows were exposed to concentrations of 0.34, 0.63, 1.2 and 2.7 mg/L LAS in continuous flow systems for a total of 196 days. Each of the four test concentrations plus control received 12 randomly assigned fish obtained from ponds at the Newtown Fish Farm, Ohio Division of Wildlife. Pieces of half-tile were placed in each 10-gallon aquarium for spawning sites. After spawning had been completed, the cluster of eggs was removed and counted. Four replicates of 100 eggs from each concentration were reared for 14 days and mortality of eggs and fry recorded daily. Results indicate that lethality of LAS to newly hatched fry was the most critical factor found. The 196 day NOEC level (normalized to C11.6LAS, van de Plassche et al 1999) was 0.63 mg/L. The LOEC was 1.2 mg/L.

In a second study (Chattopahyay and Konar 1985; van de Plassche et al 1999), the long-term toxicity of the test substance to fish was determined usingTilapia mossambica(tilapia). Groups of 15 fish were exposed to concentrations of 0.0, 0.25, 0.38, 0.51, and 1.10 mg/L for 90 days. Test solutions were renewed every 15 days. The feeding rates decreased significantly at 0.25, 0.38 and 1.10 mg/L. In addition, fish showed erratic behaviour, irregular opercular movement, and at higher concentrations, blood exuded from the base of the pectoral and pelvic fins and head. No apparent difference in condition factor (K) was observed at any concentration. The maturity index (MI) of both male and female fish appeared to decrease at all concentrations, but the biological significance of this is questionable. Fecundity decreased at 0.51 mg/L but not at 1.10 mg/L. The gastrosomatic index (GSI) was significantly different at 0.51 and 1.10 mg/L. Based on the most reliable endpoints (GSI and fecundity), the NOEC would be 0.38 mg/L and the LOEC would be 0.51 mg/L. However, in view of certain reporting limitations as described in the dossier, and the fact that previous evaluations of this study have reported a NOEC of 0.25 mg/L (van de Plassche et al., 1999), a conservative (protective) NOEC for this study is considered to be 0.25 mg/L and the LOEC considered to be 0.51 mg/L.

In the third long-term study (Canton and Slooff 1982; van de Plassche et al. 1999), groups of 50 guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed to various concentrations of LAS for 28 days. Test solutions were renewed three times per week. The only effect (98% mortality at 10 mg/L) occurred within 2 days of study initiation. The 28 day NOEC normalized by van de Plassche et al. (1999) to C11.6LAS was 3.2 mg/L. The 28 day LOEC was 10 mg/L.

In another study (Unilever 2010), fertilized eggs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, formerlySalmo gairdneri) were exposed to mean measured concentrations of 0.03, 0.23, 0.35, 0.63, 0.95 and 1.9 mg/L, for 72 days. The responses recorded included the survival of eggs, time to eyed egg stage, time to hatch, survival and final weight of sac-fry (eleutheroembryos), and time and extent of swim-up (external feeding). The lowest NOEC value found was 0.23 mg/L based on survival of eggs exposed from eyed stage, survival of eggs exposed from fertilization, survival of sac fry, and overall survival from fertilization to swim-up. The data are for C11.6LAS and no normalization is required.

Finally, a long term toxicity test (Maki 1981) to juvenile bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) was conducted on C12LAS. Fish growth was determined after 28 days exposure in a flow-through model ecosystem to measured concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L. Results showed that the growth of juvenile bluegills was not affected at 0.5 and 1.0 mg LAS/L, but was reduced at 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L. At the end of the exposure period, fish at 1.0 mg/L LAS had a biomass of 44 gm/m2compared to 10.5 gm/m2for the 2.0 mg/L concentration. Based on these effects on growth rate, the NOEC was 1.0 mg/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water fish

Fresh water fish
Effect concentration:
0.268 mg/L

Additional information

0.268 mg/L soluble active ingredient