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Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

The acute toxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane to Daphnia magna was determined in a 48-hour test. Based on the results the 48-hour EC50 was determined to be 155 mg/L based on measured concentration. The 24–hr-acute toxicity of 1,2-dichlorethane to Artemia salina was studied under static conditions. The 24–hour EC50 was 320 mg test item/L.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

EC50/LC50 for freshwater invertebrates:
155 mg/L
EC50/LC50 for marine water invertebrates:
320 mg/L

Additional information

Several invertebrates have been tested for sensitivity to 1,2-dichlorethane.

Freshwater

The acute toxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane to unfed Daphnia magna, was determined in an unaerated, static, 48-hour test. Treatments consisted of a water control and the measured concentrations of 70.4, 99.2, 137, 188, 250, 405 mg/L. Based on the results the 48-hour EC50 was determined to be 155 mg/L based on measured concentration. This study is classified as acceptable and satisfies the guideline requirements for an acute toxicity study with freshwater invertebrates.

Marine Water

The 24–hr-acute toxicity of 1,2-dichlorethane to Artemia salina was studied under static conditions. Shrimps were exposed to control and test chemical for 24 hr. Immobilization and sublethal effects were observed at test termination. The 24– hour EC50 was 320 mg test item/L.

Further studies on marine invertebrates like Foster et al. 1984 and 1985 indicates an higher hazard, however, these studies do not satisfy the guideline requirements, as the amount of solvent (acetone) used in the test was variable in the different concentrations and higher than the requested 0.1 mL/L. In addition, non-physiological water salinities were used as further stressor.

The following additional information on acute toxicity to Daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates is available:

Species

EC50

Author

Daphnia magna

220 mg/L

LeBlanc, G.A. (1980)

Daphnia magna

150 mg/L (24 h)

Freitag, D. et al. (1994)

Artemia salina

320 mg/L (24 h)

Price, K.S. et al. (1974)

Americamysis bahia

113 mg/L (96 h)

Syracuse Res. Corp. (1978)

Daphnia magna

540 mg/L (24 h)

Bringmann, G. & Kuehn, R. (1982)

Daphnia magna

600 mg/L (24 h)

Knie, J. et al. (1983)

Daphnia magna

324 mg/L

Kuehn, R. et al. (1989)

Daphnia magna

1350 mg/L (24 h)

Bringmann, G. & Kuehn, R. (1977)

Gammarus fasciatus

> 100 mg/L (96 h)

Mayer, F.L. Fr. & Ellersieck, M.R. (1986)

Artemia salina

94 mg/L (24 h)

Foster, G.D. & Tullis, R.E. (1984)

Artemia salina

36.4 mg/L (24 h)

Foster, G.D. & Tullis, R.E. (1985)

Eliminius modestus

186 mg/L

Pearson, C.R. & McConnell, G. (1975)

Crangon crangon

170 mg/L (24 h)

Rosenberg, R. (1975)

Artemia salina

20 % change of growth rate at 0.25 mg/L

Kerster, H.W. & Schaeffer, D.J. (1983)

Reference list

Bringmann, G. & Kuehn, R. (1982): Z. Wasser Abwasser Forsch. 15, 1 - 6.

Bringmann, G. & Kuehn, R. (1977): Results of the damaging effect of water pollutants on Daphnia magna; Z. Wasser Abwasser Forsch. 10, 161-166.

Foster, G.D. & Tullis, R.E. (1984): A quantitative|structure-activity relationship between partition|coefficients and the acute toxicity of naphthalene|derivatives in artemia salina nauplii. Aquat. Toxicol. 5,|245-254.

Foster, G.D., Tullis, R.E. (1985): Quantitativestructure-toxicity relationships with osmotically stressed artemia salina nauplii; Environm. Pollution (Series A):38, 273-281.

Freitag, D., Ballhorn, L., Behechti, A., Fisher, K. & Thumm, W. (1994): Structural configuration and toxicity of chlorinated alkanes; Chemosphere 282: 253-259.

Kerster, H.W. & Schaeffer, D.J. (1983): Brine shrimp (artemia salina nauplii) as a teratogen test system; Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety 7, 342-349.

Knie, J., Haelke, A., Juhnke, I., Schiller, W. (1983): Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen von chemischen Stoffen mit vier Biotests; Dtsch. Gewaesserkundl. Mitt. 27(3), 77-79.

Kuehn, R., Pattard, M., Pernak, K.D. (1989): Results of the harmful effects of selected water pollutants (anilines, phenols, aliphatic compounds) to daphnia magna; Water Res. 23, 495-499.

LeBlanc, G.A. (1980): Acute toxicity of priority pollutants to water flea (Daphnia magna); Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24, 684 - 691.

Mayer, F.L. Fr. & Ellersieck, M.R. (1986): Manual of acute toxicity: interpretation and data base for 410 chemicals and|66 species of freshwater animals; United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service/Publication 160, Washington, D.C., - 117, 30-32, 216.

Pearson, C.R. & McConnell, G. (1975): Chlorinated C1 and C2|hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Proc. R. Soc.|London, Ser. B. 189 (1096), 305-332.

Price, K.S., Waggy, G.T. & Conway, R.A. (1974): Brine shrimp bioassay and seawater BOD of petrochemicals; J. Water Pollut. Control. Fed. 46, 63-77.

Rosenberg R., Grahn, O., Johansson, L. (1975): Toxic effects of aliphatic chlorinated by-products from vinyl chloride production on marine animals; Water Res., 9(7), 607-12.

Syracuse Res. Corp. (1978): NTIS/OTS 0511060 # 40-7848049.