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Short-term toxicity to fish

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Description of key information

Based on the test results, the 96-hour LC50 for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 1,2-dichloroethane was determined to be 136 mg/L (95 % CI: 129 – 144 mg/L) based on measured concentrationsunder flow-through conditions. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was estimated to be 81 mg/L based on measured concentrations.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

LC50 for freshwater fish:
136 mg/L

Additional information

The key study was taken as it was the best documented study, therefore it was considered as the most reliable study.

The acute toxicity of 1,2-dichloroethane to fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, was determined in an aerated, 96-hour test. Treatments consisted of a dilution water control and the nominal concentrations of 53, 81, 185, 270 and 560 mg/L.

Based on the test results, the 96-hour LC50 for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 1,2-dichloroethane was determined to be 136 mg/L (95 % CI: 129 – 144 mg/L) based on measured concentrations. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was estimated to be 81 mg/L based on measured concentrations.

Further on, the following additional information on acute toxicity to fish is available (see table below).

Most of the remaining available studies are static or semi-static studies and most of them are conducted without analysis of the test concentrations. These tests are not considered for the assessment due to the high volatility of 1,2-dichloroethane. In this experiment the material showed a minimum 96 h LC50 of 66 mg/L in a static test with Micropterus salmoides with analytical monitoring (but significant, variable and to high vehicle concentrations) and a maximum 96 h LC50 of 430 mg/l in a closed static test with Lepomis macrochirus (Rinehart, W.E. 1971; Buccafusco et al. 1981).

 

Species

LC50

Author

Pimephales promelas

116 mg/L

Walbridge, C.T.et al.(1984)

Cyprinodon variegatus

> 130 – 230 mg/L

Heitmuller, P.T.et al.(1981)

Lepomis macrochirus

550 mg/L

Dawson, G.W.et al.(1975-1976)

Oncorhynchus mykiss

326 mg/L

(95 % CI: 324-350 mg/L)

Bartlett, E.A. (1979)

Leuciscus idus melanotus

406 mg/L (48 h)

Juhnke, I. & Luedemann, D. (1978)

Limanda limanda

115 mg/L

Pearson, C.R. & McConnell (1975)

Pimephales promelas

118 mg/L

Veith, G.D.et al.(1983)

Lepomis macrochirus

430 mg/L

(95 % CI: 230 – 710 mg/L)

Buccafusco, R.J.et al.(1981)

Lepomis macrochirus

94 mg/L

(95 % CI: 79.7 – 110.9 mg/L)

Rinehart, W.E. (1971)

Micropterus salmoides

66 mg/L

(95 % CI: 48.9 – 89.1 mg/L)

Rinehart, W.E. (1971)

Cyprinidon variegatus

> 126 – 226 mg/L

Syracuse Res. Corp. (1978)

Oncorhynchus mykiss

225 mg/L

Johnson, W.W. & Finley, M.T. (1980)

Mayer, F.L. & Ellersieck, M.R. (1986)

Leuciscus idus melanotus

1.8 mg/L (48 h)

Knie, J.et al.(1983)

Poecilia reticulata

106 mg/L (7 d)

Koenemann, H. (1981)

Menidia beryllina

480 mg/L

Dawson, G.W.et al.(1975-1976)

 

 

Reference list

 

Bartlett, E.A. (1979): NTIS/OTS 0517174 # 86-870002085.

Buccafusco, R.J., Ells, S.J. & LeBlanc, G.A. (1981): Acute toxicity of priority pollutants to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus); Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 26, 446 - 452.

Dawson, G.W.,, A.L., Drozdowski, D. & Rider, E. (1975-1976): The acute toxicity of 47 industrial chemicals to fresh and saltwater fishes; J. Hazard. Mater. 1, 303 - 318.

Heitmuller, P.T., Hollister, T.A. & Parrish, P.R. (1981): Acute toxicity of 54 industrial chemicals to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus); Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27, 596 - 604.

Johnson, W.W., Finley, M.T. (1980): Handbook of Acute Toxicity of Chemicals to Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates, United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service/ Resource Publication 137, Washington, D.C., 1-3, 83, 86.

Knie, J., Haelke, A., Juhnke, I., Schiller, W. (1983): Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen von chemischen Stoffen mit vier Biotests; Dtsch. Gewaesserkundl. Mitt. 27(3), 77-79.

Koenemann, H. (1981): Quantitative structure-activity relationships in fish toxicity studies - part 1: relationship for 50 industrial pollutants; Toxicology 19, 209-221.

Johnson, W.W., Finley, M.T. (1980): Handbook of Acute |Toxicity of Chemicals to Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates, United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service/ Resource Publication 137, Washington, D.C., 1-3, 83, 86.

Juhnke, I., Luedemann, D. (1978): Ergebnisse der Untersuchung von 200 chemischen verbindungen auf akute Fishtoxizität mit dem Goldorfentest; Z. Wasser Abwasser Forsch. 11(5), 161-164.

Pearson, C.R., McConnell, G. (1975): Chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons in the marine environment. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B. 189 (1096), 305-332.

Rinehart, W.E. (1971): NTIS/OTS 0516114 # 86-870001211.

Syracuse Res. Corp. (1978): NTIS/OTS 0511060 # 40-7848049.

Veith, G.D., Call, D.J. & Roff, J.C. et al. (1983): Structure–Toxicity Relationships for the Fathead Minnow,Pimephales promelas: Narcotic Industrial Chemicals; Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 743-748.

Walbridge, C.T., Fiandt, J.T., Phipps, G. L. & Holcombe, G.W. (1983): Acute Toxicity of ten chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas); Arch.Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 661 - 666.