Registration Dossier

Manufacture, use & exposure

Manufacture

Documentsopen allclose all

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant
Reference
Name:
Tungsten Carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 3:
Step 2: Blending
Step 6: Deagglomeration
Step 8: Mixing (optional)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Transfer to mixer
Step 3: Transfer to furnace
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator
Step 7: Transfer to mixer
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workers
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of WC-containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Scrap handling - WC-containing scrap materials are received in sealed metal drums and transferred into the next process step. None or limited dust exposure during the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation - WC-containing scrap materials are processed by mechanical methods (e.g., crushing, mixing). The mixing and blending operation occurs in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Name of activity / technique:
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit - Unloading the mixer and transporting the material to the furnace (several types of furnaces can be used). Limited dust exposure by the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
1) Oxidation: Heating of WC-containing scrap under oxidising conditions in a furnace at temperatures around 800 °C in a closed system.
2) Leaching: Selective dissolution of cobalt (binder) by acid, leach milling or electrolysis.
- Very limited amounts by the gas flow.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
1) Zinc: crushed material is treated in molten zinc or zinc vapour at temperatures between 900 - 1050°C in an Ar/N2 atmosphere in a closed system.
2) Coldstream process: the sorted and cleaned hardmetal pieces are cooled then blasted onto a hard surface using high velocity streams of cooled air in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling. Mechanically treated material is transferred to a mill. None or limited dust exposure during the operation.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling - Homogenisation of the material in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling - The WC powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning - The WC powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of tungsten carbide containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 1:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 1: Scrap handling
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: W metal powder is transferred from the transport containers into a mixer. Carbon black is filled into the mixer. Exposure to W metal dust possible.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Blending - Mixing of W metal powder with carbon black in a closed system.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 3: Transfer to furnace - The powder blend is unloaded from the mixer and transferred to the furnace hopper. Alternatively, it is unloaded into special containers for batch carburization. The W+C powder blend is fed into the furnace or furnace boats. Alternatively, the special containers are loaded into the batch furnace. Exposure to W+C or W metal dust possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation - The W+C powder blend is carburized to WC at elevated temperature in the furnace in a protective atmosphere (e.g., H2 or N2). Limited worker exposure data available.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Name of activity / technique:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator - The WC powder is unloaded from the furnace and transferred to a deagglomerator. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 6: Deagglomeration - The WC powder is deagglomerated in one or more processes, not necessarily enclosed. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying, filling and handling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Transfer to mixer - The WC powder is unloaded from the deagglomerator and transferred to a mixer. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Mixing (optional) - Homogenisation of the material in a closed system. Exposure not expected.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling - The WC powder is filled into closed containers. Exposure to WC powder possible at emptying and filling operations.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning - Various maintenance and cleaning operations inside and outside the equipment. Exposure to W and WC powders possible.
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR but not a lead’s own use

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Manufacture of tungsten carbide powder
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 3:
Step 2: Blending
Step 6: Deagglomeration
Step 8: Mixing (optional)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 1: Transfer to mixer
Step 3: Transfer to furnace
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 5: Transfer to deagglomerator
Step 7: Transfer to mixer
Step 10: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 9: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 4: Carburization or furnace operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting
Related assessment:
use assessed in a joint CSR

Manufacture

Registration/ Notification status for the use:
use registered according to REACH Article 10; total tonnage manufactured/imported >=10tonnes/year per registrant

Referenceopen allclose all

Name:
Tungsten Carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Name:
tungsten carbide
Type of composition:
legal entity composition of the substance
State / form:
solid: particulate/powder
Reference substance:
Composition 1
Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Name of activity / technique:
Recycling of tungsten carbide containing scrap
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 1:
Step 4:Chemical recycling (OPTIONAL)
Step 5: Mechanical recycling (zinc or cold stream)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 7: Milling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Name of activity / technique:
The following activities were individually coded as PROC 8b:
Step 1: Scrap handling
Step 3: Transfer to recycling unit
Step 6: Transfer to milling after mechanical recycling
Step 9: Maintenance and cleaning
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Name of activity / technique:
Step 8: Filling
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Name of activity / technique:
Step 2: Processing operation
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 1: Chemical production or refinery in closed process without likelihood of exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 5: Mixing or blending in batch processes
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 21: Low energy manipulation of substances bound in materials and/or articles

Manufacture

Contributing activity / technique for the environment
Environmental release category (ERC):
ERC1: Manufacture of the substance
Contributing activity / technique for workersopen allclose all
Process category (PROC):
PROC 3: Manufacture or formulation in the chemical industry in closed batch processes with occasional controlled exposure or processes with equivalent containment conditions
Process category (PROC):
PROC 8b: Transfer of substance or mixture (charging and discharging) at dedicated facilities
Process category (PROC):
PROC 9: Transfer of substance or mixture into small containers (dedicated filling line, including weighing)
Process category (PROC):
PROC 22: Potentially closed processing operations with minerals/metals at elevated temperature. Industrial setting