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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
other:
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
2003
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2003

Materials and methods

Principles of method if other than guideline:
Literature review of existing bioaccumulation and bioconcentration data. Exposure (exposure duration was at least 28 d for fish and 14 d for invertebrates and plants or shorter periods if equilibrium had been demonstrated) and whole-body metal levels measured by accepted analytical
techniques and an assessment of exposure in the context of guidelines associated with standard BCF test methodologies.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
We collected and evaluated waterborne-exposure data on Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Hg, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB; C6H4Cl2O). These substances were chosen for practical as well as theoretical reasons with the availability of reasonable amounts of suitable information as the primary consideration.
Data were collected from the primary literature with the help of common sources such as the AQUIRE database [73] as well as Jarvinen and Ankley [74] being used to identify additional studies. Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag were included in this study because these represent metals of general concern in terms of environmental protection and they span the continuum from nutritionally essential, such as Zn, Cu, and Ni, to nonessential, such as Pb and Ag. We included Hg for comparative purposes, as it can occur in the organic methylmercury form, with potentially different bioaccumulation trends from the other metals.
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
/

Sampling and analysis

Details on sampling:
Not explicitely mentioned in publication. Publication based on several original studies.

Test solutions

Details on preparation of test solutions, spiked fish food or sediment:
/

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
other: microphytes and algae (designated as algae), annelids, arthropods (other than insects), insects, mollusks, salmons, centrarchids, cyprinids, sticklebacks, killifish, and other fish species
Details on test organisms:
/

Study design

Route of exposure:
aqueous
Test type:
not specified
Water / sediment media type:
not specified
Total exposure / uptake duration:
> 14 d

Test conditions

Hardness:
/
Test temperature:
/
pH:
/
Dissolved oxygen:
/
TOC:
/
Salinity:
/
Details on test conditions:
/
Nominal and measured concentrations:
/

Results and discussion

Details on kinetic parameters:
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Metabolites:
/
Results with reference substance (positive control):
/
Details on results:
/
Reported statistics:
/

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag in aquatic biota were, in general, remarkably consistent, particularly for Zn, where total body/tissue concentration varied little over a wide range of exposure concentrations, exposure conditions, and species. However, mean BCF values for the six metals were characterized by high variability, and there was an inverse relationship between BCF and exposure concentration.
Bioaccumulation is a characteristic of the metals examined, but the BCF parameter does not characterize this bioaccumulation nor is it related to the potential for toxic impacts. This conclusion has a theoretical, chemical, physiological, and pragmatic basis. The BCF model was designed, developed, and adapted to describe neutral and lipid-soluble organic substances of anthropogenic origin, and its application to metals for the purposes of hazard identification is not supported by the scientific data.
This is not to say that bioaccumulation of metals is unimportant. Understanding and predicting bioaccumulation of metals is one of the key requirements in understanding their fate and toxicity in aquatic environments and for environmental protection measures. However, the BCF criterion does not reflect the current understanding of metal bioaccumulation and cannot predict it.