Registration Dossier

Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

Administrative data

Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: short-term
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Scientifically sound study published in a peer-reviewed journal and conducted in accordance with an appropriate guideline (OECD 207).

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
The relative toxicity of metaldehyde and iron phosphate-based molluscicides to earthworms
Author:
Edwards CA, Arancon NQ, Vasko-Bennett M, Little B & Askar A
Year:
2009
Bibliographic source:
Crop Protection 28: 289–294

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Study tested both iron phosphate and a commonly used molluscicide; iron phosphate with EDTA.
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): iron phosphate

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes

Test substrate

Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Treatments were: over the range of concentrations 0 (control), 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, 1000.0, and 10,000.0 mg of chemical / kg d.w. soil.

The treatments tested were:
1) Control – no chemicals
2) Metaldehyde
3) Iron phosphate (Fe(PO4)3)
4) EDDS
5) EDTA
6) 100% Fe(PO4)3 + 3% EDDS*
7) 100% Fe(PO4)3 + 3% EDTA*
*These are the amounts of chelating agents needed to obtain complete chelation of the iron phosphate. Metaldehyde, and iron phosphate were applied, mixed with 10 g finely ground quartz sand, and EDDS and EDTA were both applied in deionized water solution. The control and EDDS and EDTA treatments also received 10 g finely ground quartz sand. There were four replicates of each treatment.

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Animal group:
annelids
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: earthworm
- Source: no data
- Weight at test initiation: approx 1 mg

Study design

Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h

Test conditions

Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
6.0 +/- 0.5
Moisture:
35% dry weight moisture content
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (material, size): glass jars
- Amount of soil or substrate: 750 g
- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 10
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- No. of replicates per control: 4


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil):
10% finely ground sphagnum peat (pH 5.5–6.0).
20% kaolinite clay (containing >30% kaolinite).
70% industrial quartz sand (dominant fine sand with more than 50% of particle size of 0.05–2.0 mm).
1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3 – pulverized to bring the pH of mixture to 6.0 ± 0.5).
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, 1000.0, 10.000.0 mg of chemical / kg dry weight soil

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
78.16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: iron phosphate + 3% EDTA
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
82.98 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
not specified
Conc. based on:
other: iron phosphate + 3% EDDS
Basis for effect:
morphology

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Iron phosphate alone had no significant effects on the earthworms at any of the tested concentrations. However, combinations of iron phosphate with both EDTA and EDDS had significant effects on the earthworm numbers.
This study demonstrates the low bioavailability of iron phosphate (ferric orthophosphate); when combine with a chelating agent the bioavailability is increased and the toxic effects to earthworms of iron ingestion are noted. ferric orthophosphate itself is not considered to be toxic to earthworms.