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Toxicity to terrestrial plants

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Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study is well documented
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
no guideline was reported
GLP compliance:
not specified
Species:
other: Capsicum annuum L.
Plant group:
other: eudicots
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: pepper
- Source of seed: cv. Nokkwang
- Seed treatment: seeds were sown in washed, fine sand watered with half strength Hoagland's solution.
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Total exposure duration:
3 wk
Test temperature:
4 °C
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): Wagner pot containing 1 kg of dried sandy loam soil.
- Structure: experiment was structured following a randomized complete block design (RCBD)
- Fresh leaves were put immediately into a liquid N deep-freeze (-70 °C) to analyze antioxidative enzymes
- To analyze mineral elements, plant materials were first air-dried at 70 °C to constant weight.
- Boron analysis was determined spectrophotometrically by the azomethine-H method
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4 replicates of each treatment


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SOIL
- pH: (1:5 water): 6.0
- EC: 0.45 dS/m
- Organic matter: 8 g/kg
- Total nitrogen: 0.7 g/kg
- Soil texture (if natural soil): dried sandy loam soil
- CEC: Ca 3.8, K 0.5, Na 0.4 cmol+/kg and B 1.0 cmol+/kg
- Pretreatment of soil: a basal fertilizer was applied N-P-K: 100-80-50 kg/ha


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: natural light conditions
- Germination: in a greenhouse, with daytime temperature of 25 °C an relative humidity 65-70 %. After the second true leaves appeared, the seeds were transplanted.
- Harvest: all plants were harvested 3 weeks after transplanting.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
combination 2 salinity (NaCl at 3 and 6 dS/m) and 2 boron levels (15 and 30 mg/lg H3BO3) + controls
Species:
other: C.annuum
Duration:
21 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 5.25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
other: dry matter yield
Details on results:
- The toxic effect of salinity was greater in the presence of B, the maximum reduction occured with the combination of 5 dS/m and 30 mg/kg B
Reported statistics and error estimates:
all data were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance using Costat software (CoHort software, Monterey, USA). Means comparisons were conducted using an ANOVA protected the least significant difference (p<0.05)
Conclusions:
No effect of H3BO3 on dry matter yield of hot pepper after 21 days of exposure at normal salinity.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study is well documented
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
no guideline was reported
GLP compliance:
not specified
Remarks:
No data is available on the GLP compliance, as no guideline was followed this value was set to no, respectively.
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Wheat
- Variety: Gerek-79
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Total exposure duration:
60 d
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: greenhouse under natural light conditions
- Test container (type, material, size): grown in plastic pots containing 2000 g air-dried soils
- Method: randomized factorial experiment
- No. of seeds per container: 12 seeds per pot. After emergence, the plants were thinned to 8.
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4
- 60d after sowing, vegetative growth was harvested and divided into shoot and rot. Samples were washed with boron free distilled water and fresh leaf samples were taken for determination of boron concentrations on cell wall: remaining shoot and root plant samples were dried at 65 °C and weighted. After grinding plant samples were dry-ashed at 500 °C for total plant boron determination by using ICP-OES. Tips of leaves (2 cm length) was taken from each individual plant leaf. Cell wall was separated from the plants. The samples were dried and ashed at 500°C for cell wall boron by using ICP-OES.


SOIL PROPERTIES
- Texture: clay loam
- CaCO3: 46 g/kg
- pH: 8.08
- EC: 0.102 dS/cm
- OM: 10.4 g/kg
- Basal fertilizer were applied to all pots before sowing
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 5, 10, 20 mg B/kg as boric acid H3BO3
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
60 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot and root
Remarks on result:
other: normal Ca concentration
Details on results:
- inhibitory effect of boron on the shoot and root growth was reduced by the presence of calcium
Reported statistics and error estimates:
data obtained from different analyses and measurements were analyzed statistically using Minitab package program (release 10.51) and treatment means were compared using the MSTAT package program (version 3.00) for Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Conclusions:
the 60d NOEC of boric acid on shoot and root groth of Triticum aestivum is 5 mg/kg B at normal Ca concentrations of the soil.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for hazard assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-1 (1993): barley root elongation
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP status, but it study was performed by qualified staff according to international guidelines and can therefore be considered as GLP-confom.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution of the weak acid H3BO3 was made (25 g/l). Soils were spiked in doses within the range of 0-293 mg B/kg by mixing the B solutions in the soil using a laboratory spoon.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: barley grass
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
4 d
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
Soil E1: 4.4
Soil E2: 5.2
Soil E3: 6.3
Soil E4: 6.7
Soil E5: 6.8
Soil E6: 7.3
Soil E7: 7.8
Soil B1: 5.0
Soil B2: 4.5
Soil B3: 5.2
Soil B4: 6.8
Soil B5: 6.0
Soil B6: 4.4
Soil B7: 7.1
Soil U1: 7.2
Soil U2: 7
Soil U3: 7.4
Soil U4: 7.3
Soil U5: 7.7
Moisture:
80% of pF 2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: growth cabinet
- Test container (type, material, size): cylindrical pots, approximately 2.8 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height
- Amount of soil: 80-100g wet weight
- Method of seeding: Summer barley seeds were pregerminated at 20°C in darkness. Three seeds with a radical length lower than 2 mm were planted in each pot approximately 10 mm beneath the surface of the soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 1
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3
- No. of replicates per control: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Fourteen European soils, 5 soils from USA
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
Soil E1: 9 % sand, 5 % silt, 20 % clay
Soil E2: 81 % sand, 8 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil E3: 43% sand, 16% silt, 27 % clay
Soil E4: 8% sand, 70% silt, 12 % clay
Soil E5: 51% sand, 11 % silt, 33 % clay
Soil E6: 20% sand, 50 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil E7: 34% sand, 16 % silt, 11 % clay
Soil B1: 10% sand, 9 % silt, 13 % clay
Soil B2: 84 % sand, 71 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil B3: 4% sand, 66 % silt, 19 % clay
Soil B4: 31% sand, 34 % silt, 14 % clay
Soil B5: 18% sand, 67 % silt, 17 % clay
Soil B6: 37% sand, 45 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil B7: 17% sand, - % silt, 19 % clay
Soil U1: 5.8 % clay
Soil U2: 9.6 % clay
Soil U3: 2.1 % clay
Soil U4: 31.1 % clay
Soil U5: 17.5 % clay

- Organic carbon (%):
Soil E1: 30.7
Soil E2: 1.8
Soil E3: 3.6
Soil E4: 0.9
Soil E5: 0.6
Soil E6: 2.8
Soil E7: 3.6
Soil B1: nd (not determined)
Soil B2: nd
Soil B3: nd
Soil B4: nd
Soil B5: nd
Soil B6: nd
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: 0.52
Soil U2: 0.72
Soil U3: 0.14
Soil U4: 0.78
Soil U5: 0.60

- CEC (cmolc/kg):
Soil E1: 41.7
Soil E2: 4.1
Soil E3: 30
Soil E4: 12.2
Soil E5: 14.2
Soil E6: 14.3
Soil E7: 14.1
Soil B1: 13.8
Soil B2: 14.6
Soil B3: 9.6
Soil B4: 16.3
Soil B5: 12.2
Soil B6: 37.7
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: nd
Soil U2: nd
Soil U3: nd
Soil U4: nd
Soil U5: nd

- Pretreatment of soil: All soils were air dried at 25° C and sieved to <4 mm.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12h/12h cycle light/darkness
- Light source: natural light
- Day/night temperatures: 20/16°C
- Relative humidity (%): 70

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: root elongation was tested in soils either immediately after spiking with boric acid and after 1 and 5 months equilibration (ageing). Soils were aged at 80% of pF 2 at 20° C in closed pots that had headspace of about 50% of the volume and which were regularly opened for air exchange.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : The endpoint of this assay is the mean length of the longest root of each seedling per pot after 4 days



Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 3.0, 7.5, 18.8, 46.9, 117.2, 293.0 mg added B/kg dry matter
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
31 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E1. 95% CL:21-45
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E2. 95%CL: 5-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E3; 95% CL: 8-16
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
17 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E4. 95%CL: 12-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E6. 95%CL: 12-33
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil E7. 95%CL: 3-23
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B1; 95% CL: 17-25
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B2. 95%CL: 7-10
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B3. 95%CL: 13-19
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B4. 95%CL: 5-12
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
36 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B5. 95%CL: 24-52
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B6. 95%CL: 26-42
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil B7. 95%CL: 7-10
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U1. 95%CL: 5-9
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U2. 95%CL: 8-14
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U3. 95%CL: 3-6
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for 1 month aged soil U4. 95%CL: 12-30
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
21 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E1. 95%CL: 10-45
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E2. 95%CL: 4-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E3. 95%CL: 9-24
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E4. 95%CL: 10-18
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
30 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E6. 95%CL: 18-50
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil E7. 95%CL: 8-35
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B1. 95%CL: 11-22
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B2. 95%CL: 5-7
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B3. 95%CL: 7-11
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B4. 95%CL: 5-17
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
12 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B5. 95%CL: 7-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B6. 95%CL: 15-32
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil B7. 95%CL: 13-20
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U1. 95%CL: 18-26
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
38 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U2.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U3. 95%CL: 11-16
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
26 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for aged (5 months) soil U4; 95% CL: 15-38
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Dose-response curves were fitted by a log-logistic model using the Marquardt Method.
The ED10/ED50 model was adjusted to account for hormesis effects when the root growth in the soils with added B was at least 20% higher compared to the control soil. The ‘dose’ in this model is the added B concentration (nominal concentration), and ED10 values and their 95% confidence interval, expressed as added B, are predicted from the appropriate parameters of the curve.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Reliable study. For each soil, the geomean of the EC10 values for all three equilibration periods (immediately after spiking or after 1 or 5 months ageing) is used for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study was performed according to ISO 11269-2 (2000) guidelines and is well documented.
Qualifier:
according to guideline
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-2 "Soil Quality – Determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora – Part 2: Effects of chemicals on the emergence and growth of higher plants"
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP certificate. However, the study was conducted at a GLP-certified laboratory, staff was appropriately trained and standard operating procedures were followed in terms of experimental performance and raw data documentation.
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution and respective dosage solutions (geometric series of dilutions of the stock solution) were prepared immediately before application to the test soil. To adjust the test item concentrations in the test soil, the bulk soil for all test species from the same treatment was mixed with the respective volume of test solution and then distributed to the test pots.
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: (oat)
-type: St. Champion
-Source:Saatenunion, D-30916 Isernhagen, Germany.
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: rape
-type: Akelei
-source: LUFA Speyer D-67346 Speyer, Germany.
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
20 d
Test temperature:
18-25 °C
pH:
6.2
Moisture:
7.1 % dry weight
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: The test plants were cultivated in a controlled environment room
- Testing containers: Plant pots made of polypropylene were used as test pots. Rectangular polystyrene beakers, 18.3 cm by 13.6 cm large and 6.4 cm high were used as water reservoirs for the test pots
- Amount of soil: 900g
- Method of seeding: Plant seeds were randomly picked with a pair of tweezers and pressed 5 to 10 mm deep into the soil at a uniform distance between each other. The soil surface was carefully smoothed afterwards.
- No. of seeds per container: 40
- No. of plants (retained after thinning):
- No. of replicates per treatment group:
- No. of replicates per control:

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Speyer, Germany
- Pesticide use history at the collection site: no fertilizer or pesticides the last two years before sampling
- Organic carbon [%]: 0.99
- pH (0.01 M CaCl2): 6.2
- Cation exchange capacity [mval/100 g]: 7
- Max. water holding capacity [g/100 g]: 34.2
- Particle size according to USDA [mm]: Relative distribution [%]
< 0.002 9.3
0.002 - 0.05 29.1
0.05 - 2.0 61.6
- Soil type: sandy loam
- Pretreatment of soil: sieving (<2 mm)
- From 2006 till 2008: soil uncultivated. From 2004 till 2005: soil cultivated (pumpkin) and fertilization used (400kg/ha in 2004 and 300kg/ha in 2005). Fertilizer was Nirophoska Spezial (12% N, 12% P2O5, 17% K2O)

NUTRIENT MEDIUM (if used)
- Description: After seedling emergence all reservoirs were filled once with a nutrient solution (100 mL,each). The nutrient solution was prepared by diluting 7.0 mL of a commercially available liquid fertilizer (Substral®) per litre of demineralised water.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: Light intensity in the CE-room measured approximately at canopy height was at least 4000 lx
- Light source: high presure metal halide lamps
- Day/night temperatures: 18/25 °C
- Relative humidity (%): 40-70%
- Watering regime and schedules: when necessary
- Water source/type: deionised water
- Any pest control method/fertilization (if used): none

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) : At the end of the test, seedlings were cut at the soil surface, and shoot length and shoot fresh weight of each individual plant were determined immediately.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg H3BO3/kg soil dry weight,
corresponding to control, 5.5, 10.9, 21.8, 43.7 and 87.4 mg B/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
27.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot biomass
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
39.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
20 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
13.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot biomass
Details on results:
Seedling shoot length of A. sativa was significantly reduced at all tested concentrations while shoot mass was reduced at concentrations of 125 mg/kg soil and higher. B. napus shoot length and biomass were reduced at concentrations of 250 and 125 mg/kg soil, respectively.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
All calculations were based on the mean values of the seedlings per pot. EC50, EC20, and EC10. were determined by Probit Analysis. Positive effects (values > control, i.e. >100%) were set to 100%.

For shoot length and biomass data normal distribution was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Test, and homogeneity of the variances by Cochran's Test Procedure.

NOEC and LOEC were determined by applying the Williams multiple sequential t-test
procedure. two sided.

 Shooth Length Avena sativa (mg B/kg dry weight) Brassica napus(mg B/kg dry weight)
EC20  35.7 43.8
EC50  54.7 53.6 
NOEC  <5.5  21.8 (-6.4% inhibition)
NOEC  5.5 (8% inhibition)  43.7 (19.9% inhibition)
Shoot Biomass     
EC10  11.0 13.9
EC20  16.4  18.2
EC50  32.2 30.5
NOEC  10.9 (9.8% inhibition) 10.9 (13.6% inhibition)
LOEC  21.8 (32.9% inhibition) 21.8 (30.2% inhibition)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Study was performed according to ISO 11269-2 (2000) guidelines and is well documented. 20-day EC10 values for shoot length and shoot biomass of 27.8 and 11.0 mg B/kg dry soil, respectively are obtained for Avena sativa (oat) and 20-day EC10 values for shoot length and shoot biomass of 39.4 and 13.9 mg B/kg dry soil, respectively are obtained for Brassica napus (rape). All EC10 values were selected for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: This study did not follow standard guidelines. Insufficent information on methods and results (the soil propertie were not reported, no details on equilibration or test duration. B doses are reported as ppm).
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
growth inhibition test with beans, radish, tomatoes, thimoty and corn
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
- Boron was added as sodium borate solution (Na2B4O7.10H2O)
- No information on mixing
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
snap bean
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
radish
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
tomato
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
corn
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
timothy
Test type:
not specified
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Remarks:
not reported
Test temperature:
Day and night temperature regimes were about 22 and 16°C, respectively.
pH:
6.0
Moisture:
as required by the crop
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: greenhouse
- Test container (type, material, size): 4.5 l pails
- Amount of soil: 3500 g
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 14 radish and 10 of the other 4 crops
- No. of replicates: 4


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- fine sandy loam


LIGHTNING
- 14h day/10h night
- Intensity: 1100 lux
- Fluorescent and incandescent light sources
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 1ppm, 2ppm, 4 ppm (assumed to be mg B:kg dw)
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield pods
Remarks on result:
other: 5% stimulation at largest dose tested
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield roots
Remarks on result:
other: 50% stimulation at largest dose tested
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: 2% inhibition at NOEC, 31% inhibition at LOEC (4 mg B/kg dw)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC values are described based on the reportes least significant difference (LSD, p<0.05) between treatments. No informtion was presented on how this LSD value was derived.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The results are not considered reliable and are not used for PNEC derivation (this study did not follow standard guidelines, insufficent information on methods and results: the soil propertie were not reported, no details on equilibration or test duration, B doses are reported as ppm).
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, only CaCl2 extractable B concentrations reported, LSD calculated for genotype x B effect and not for B effect alone.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
plant growth test with Brassica rapa.
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Test compound added in solution to soil. All soils received basal nutrient dressings of P, S, Zn and N. Soils were left to equilibrate for 7 days before the start of the test.
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: field mustard
- 19 genotpes used (local, WWY sarson, kat cl-10, PI212083, CPI 156420, Bharatar-1, SV 70/8368, PI 175608, Span, PI 324507, Con Foo C, nagoaka, candle, mex h, mex j, jap local, great luck, shillong and kaga
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
71 d
Remarks:
35d for shoot dry matter, 38 and 71 d for total dry matter, 71 d for plant height, NR for root length
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
22° day, 16°C night
pH:
8.0
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: evaporatively cooled glasshouse
- Test container (type, material, size): 15l plastic containers
- Amount of soil: 12 kg
- Pretreatment of the seeds: surface sterilized in 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochloryte and pregerminated on moist filter paper under sterile conditions. seedlings with uniform root length were selected and each seedling was placed in a hole cut into a polystyrene lid and secured with cotton wool wrapped around the stem.
- No. of plants (retained after thinning):
- No. of replicates: 4 per genotype x treatment combination
- Harvest: at 5 weeks after sowing



SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: birchip region, Victoria, Australia (35.80°S, 142.87°E)
- Soil taxonomic classification: calcarosol


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 16h
Nominal and measured concentrations:
29 and 54 mg/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
35 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 50 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: 15% inhibition at largest dose tested (50 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
35 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 50 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: (4%)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
35 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
38 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
12.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as LOEC/2
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
71 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
38 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Remarks on result:
other: (0%)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
38 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Species:
Brassica rapa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 29 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: (4%)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
71 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: (0%)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
71 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: (4%)
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
71 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Details on results:
- Boron was extracted from the soil by hot CaCl2.
- NOEC data varied between <25 and >= 25 mg CaCl2 extractable B/kg dw.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
- Two-way analyses of variance were performed on all data to determine the significance of genotyp x boron treatment interactions.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The study is considered not reliable and results are not used for PNEC derivation (no standard guideline followed, only CaCl2 extractable B concentrations reported, LSD (least significant difference) calculated for genotype x B effect, not for B effect alone. For the growth and morphology experiments (total plant yield, plant height and root length), the soil was added to 20 cm pots lined with plastic bags. Another 3 cm of untreated soil was added on top of the pots to ensure the proper establishment of plant roots before they grew into the B containing soil. No influence on the B uptake was reported). The pH of the non EU soil tested was above the 10-90th percentile bounderies for EU soils.
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed and insufficient information on methodology and results (no soil properties reported, no information on leaching and actual soil B concentration during the test period)
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
field experiment on effect of boron on seed yield of beans and cabbage
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
not reported
Vehicle:
yes
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boron in the form of Borate-65, containing 20% B, was added to a commercial grade N-P-K (8-16-8 at 550 kg/ha for beans and 15-20-10 at 1100 kg/ha for cabbage) fertilizer and the mixture was applied broadcast by hand and incorporated to a depth of about 10 cm prior to seeding or transplanting.
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
cabbage
var. capitata ‘Houston Evergreen'
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
field beans
var 'Seafarer’
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
field study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
105 d
Remarks:
harvest when fully developped or mature (3.5 months or 105 days)
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
nr
pH:
5.8 - 6.5
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
- 4 replicates
- boron incorporated to a depth of 10cm prior to seeding or transplanting
- seeding: seeds 5 cm apart (beans) or 60 cm apart (cabbage)
- average rainfall: 334-430 mm
- field tests started either in the same year (exact equilibration period not reported) or one year after B application (equilibration period 365 days).
- The center row of each plot was harvested when the crops were fully developed or mature (about 3.5 months or 105 days for both crops).
- Endpoints: marketable yields (pods and above ground biomass for beans and cabage, respectively)



SOIL CHARACTERISTICS
- the toxicity tests were performed at four different locations in Canada
- All 4 soils are classified as orthic humoferric podzols
- Hot water extractable B at the four locations ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 mg/kg soil
- loc1: Ten mile house
* classification: orthic humoferric podzol
* texture: culloden loamy sand
* slope class: 2-5%
* drainage: well drained, no impeding horizon
- loc2: Tea hill
* classification: orthic humoferric podzol
* texture: tignish fine sandy loam
* slope class: 2-5%
* drainage: well drained, impeding layer within 50cm
- loc3: Roseberry
* classification: orthic humoferric podzol
* texture: culloden loamy sand
* slope class: 2-5%
* drainage: well drained, no impeding horizon
- loc4: Bellevue
* classification: orthic humoferric podzol
* texture: Alberry fine sand loam
* slope class: 2-5%
* drainage: well drained, no impeding horizon
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal: 0, 2.2, 4.4, 8.8 kg B/ha,
corresponding to 0, 1.57; 3.14 and 6.29 mg B/kg soil based on the following assumptions: depth 10cm and density 1.4 kg/dm3
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
105 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 8.8 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
fresh shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: for all 4 locations and both cropping seasons
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
105 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2.2 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
other: dry bean seed yield
Remarks on result:
other: first cropping season for Roseberry and Bellevue soils.
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
105 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.4 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
other: dry bean seed yield
Remarks on result:
other: first cropping season for Roseberry and Bellevue soils.
Species:
Phaseolus vulgaris
Duration:
105 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 8.8 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
other: dry bean seed yield
Remarks on result:
other: second cropping season, all 4 locations
Details on results:
For Brassica oleracea, the yield inhibition at the highest dose applied varied between -2 and 23% and between -11 and 0% for the first and second cropping season, respectively.
During the first cropping season the yield inhibition for Phaseolus vulgaris at NOEC and LOEC varies between -4 and 22% and between 26 and 61%, respectively. During the second cropping season, the yield inhibition for Phaseolus vulgarisvaried between -21 and 6% at the highest dose applied.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
A separate analysis of variance was conducted at each site. A set of orthogonal comparisons were devised to test the significance of the first crop bean yield data. Least significant difference was determined at significance level P=0.05.
All NOEC/LOEC values are based on the data presented in Table 2 of the original study and the statistics reported in Table 3 of this study.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The results are not considered reliable and are not used for PNEC derivation (no standard guideline followed and insufficient information on methodology and results: no soil properties reported, no information on leaching and actual soil B concentration during the test period).
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, only one dose tested.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
effect of boron application on yield of kenaf and cotton
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boron uptake was evaluated for kenaf and cotton grown in B-amended (7.5 mg B/L) and in control soils (containing extractable B <1mg B L-1) collected post-harvest from pots from an irrigation experiment with control and B amended water. Both types of soils, B-amended and control were removed from the pots used for the irrigation experiment, thoroughly mixed separately, air-dried, passed through a 2-mm mesh, and redeposited into pots
Species:
other: Hibiscus cannabinus L.
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
brown Indianhemp
Species:
other: Gossypium hirsutum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
upland cotton
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
yes
Total exposure duration:
170 d
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
initially: 21°C (day), 18°C (night)
after 45 days: 30°C/24°C day/night temperature
pH:
+/- 6.7
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: 4 greenhouses
- Test container (type, material, size): 18 L plastic pots.


SOIL SPECIFICATIONS
- Amount of soil: 15 kg air-dried Panoche soul (fine loamu, mixed, thermic typic torriorthent) per pot
- Method of seeding: 7-10 days after plant emergence, plants were thinned to 5 plants per pot, spaced 8cm apart.
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 5 per pot
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 18 pots per treatment per species (divided over 3 blocks)
- Equilibration period: >7days (time between irrigation and soil experiment)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: a field on the west side of central valley in california (near Los Banos).
- soil classification: fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous), thermic Typic Torriorthent (USDA)
- Sampling depth (cm): upper 25 cm of the soil profile
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth):
- EC: 7.8 dS/m
- Pretreatment of soil: Air dried and passed through a 2mm mesh.
- Extractable B <0.25 mg B/L in the soil saturation extract. acid soluble B concentration was approx. 33 mg B/kg soil.


SOIL PREPARATION
- Boron uptake was evaluated for kenaf and cotton grown in B amended and control soils collected post harvest from pots from an irrigation experiment with control and B amended water (B-amended water containing 7.5mg B/l, B-free water containing < 0.25 mg B/l)
- Both types of soils were removed from the pots used for the irrigation experiment, mixed separately, air-dried, sieved and redeposited into pots.


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Light source: photosynthetic photon flux
- Light intensity and quality: density: 600 ùmol/m2.s natural sunlight (initially), 850 ùmol after 45 days
Nominal and measured concentrations:
measured B concentrations:
Initial concentrations: 35 (control) and 47 (B-amended) mg B/kg dw for kenaf, 33 (control) and 44 (B-amended) mg B/kg dw for cotton. Soil B concentrations decrease significantly during the experiment: post-harvest concentrations 31 (control) and 38 (B-amended) mg B/kg dw for kenaf and 30 (control) and 37 (B-amended) mg B/kg dw for cotton. The average of pre-plant and post-harvest total soil B concentrations was used for derivation of toxicity thresholds (Kenaf: 33 and 42.5 mg B/kg for control and B-amended soil, respectively; Cotton: 31.5 and 40.5 mg B/kg for control and B-amended soil, respectively).
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: Gossypium hirsutum
Duration:
170 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B (added dose)
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield and total plant yield
Remarks on result:
other: NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 15% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Gossypium hirsutum
Duration:
170 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B (added dose)
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root yield
Remarks on result:
other: 15% inhibition at 9 mg B/kg dw
Species:
other: Hibiscus cannabinus
Duration:
170 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
4.75 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B (added dose)
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield and total plant yield
Remarks on result:
other: NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 16-17% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Hibiscus cannabinus
Duration:
170 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 9.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
meas. (not specified)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B (added dose)
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: 21% inhibition at 9.5 mg B/kg dw.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Separate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each plant organ and for whole plants. The response variable was dry matter. Log transformation of young stem, root, and whole plant data was necessary to normalize it for ANOVA. Separate ANOVA were performed on the B responses in the soil for the treatments (B-amended water and control water). Data from acid-soluble B were transformed by ranks to stabilize the variances between treatrments in B analyses that excluded extractable B for the B treatment. Pearsons correlation and Kendall’s tau-rank correlation tests were conducted to compare plant tissue concentrations of B with dry weight. All data presented represent pooled mean values from all three greenhouses (blocks) with standard errors from replications for all treatments per species, respectively. Values represent the pooled mean from experiments (i) and (ii) with 18 replications in each, respectively, followed by the standard error in parentheses. Mean separation between control and B-amended soils for each plant species was performed by Tukey’s range test.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The results are not considered reliable and are not used for PNEC derivation (study did not follow standard guidelines, only 1 dose tested and one control group)
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, response data derived from graphs
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
85-day shoot and grain yield test with barley
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
analysis of mannitol extractable B (concentrations of <0.5, <0.5, <0.5, 1.0, 2.1 and 4.9 mg B/kg were determined for the various doses). No analysis of total B concentrations in soil.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
common barley
cv Stirling
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
85 d
Remarks:
or more, until maturity of barley plants
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
18°C
pH:
5.6 (1:5 in water)
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: air condition glass house
- Test container (type, material, size): undrained plastic pots of 16.5 cm surface diameter
- Amount of soil: 3.5 kg
- No. of seeds per pot: 20
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 10 (day 12)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Lancelin, Australia
- Sampling depth (cm): surface, 0-10 cm
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % clay: 3.5
- Soil taxonomic classification: sand soil
- Organic carbon (%): 0.69
- Pretreatment of soil: soil was air dried, sieved through 3.86 mm sieve and thoroughly mixed
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg B/kg soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
85 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
85 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
2.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield grain
Details on results:
EC50 values for both shoot and grain yield are >8 mg B/kg dw.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Data for shoot yield and grain yield at the various B doses were derived from graphs. ECx values were calculated based on these data and a log-logistic dose-response curve fitted by minimising unweighted squared residuals sum (maximum likelihood).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Study considered not reliable and results not used for PNEC derivation (no standard guideline followed, response data derived fromgraphs). Both organic matter content and clay content from the non EU soil tested are below the 10-90th percentile bounderies for EU soils.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed, only control and 1 dose level of B tested, no information on physico-chemical characteristics of the soil
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Principles of method if other than guideline:
nr
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
nr
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: winter barley
- varieties: plaisant, victoria, lignee 527, robur and cyclonen alger/ceres, ICB104041, baluchistan, zarjou, tokak, galleon
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
49 d
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
15-25°C
pH:
nr
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: plastic house
- No. of replicates: 2
- Equilibration period not reported


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Soil taxonomic classification: fine clay thermic, montmorillonitic, calcixerolic xerochrept + two parts sand by volume
- Physico-chem characteristics: alkaline, non-saline, low organic matter
- Soil preparation: soil B levels were prepared by mixing boric acid into the soil. also fertilizes were mixed into the soil before potting.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 25 mg/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Plaisant; 26% inhibition at LOEC (25 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Victoria; 27% inhibition at LOEC (25 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
12.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Lignee 527; 11% inhibition at LOEC (25 mg B/kg dw), NOEC calculated as LOEC/2
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Robour; 7% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Cyclone; 23% inhibition at LOEC (25 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Alger/Ceres; -8% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety ICB-104041; 7% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Baluchistan; -12% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Zarjou; -13% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Tokak; 10% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: barley variety Galleon; -9% inhibition at largest dose tested
Details on results:
no analysis of total B concentrations in soil
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
% inhibition compared to control treatment calculated for single dose tested

nr

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Results not reliable and not used for PNEC derivation (study did not follow standard test guidelines, only the control and 1 dose level of Boron were tested and there is no information on physico-chemical characteristics of the soil in the report)
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, insufficent information on methods and results (the test substance is not reported, the study contains no information on B application and no soil properties are reported)
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
shoot yield test with different genotypes of Pisum sativum
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
No information on method of application or mixing
Species:
Pisum sativum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: garden pea
- 14 genotypes tested: pig16, pig 36, cpi 65352, sa 132, sa 395, sa 213, sa 448, sa 310,sa 1512, ngb 1574, m93, alma, early dun and pennant
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
49 d
Remarks:
harvested 7 weeks after sowing
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
not reported
Moisture:
watered with deionised water added as required
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: glasshouse (evaporatively cooled)
- Test container (type, material, size): potts (200mm diameter) lined with polythene bags
- Amount of soil: 4 kg
- Method of seeding: sown 2cm deep in each of two randomly allotted rows. 5 seeds were sown 2 centimeters below the soil surface in each pot.
- No. of seeds per container: 6 seeds from each accession
- No. of plants per container: 3 evenly spaces plants per pott, three weeks after sowing
- No. of replicates per control: 4 replicates of ALma throughout each box
- seeds provided by Dr. S.M.Ali, South australian research and development institute.


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Glenthorne research farm, O halloran hill, south australie
- Soil taxonomic classification: red brown earth tyic haploxeralf
- Soil classification system: silty clay loam
- Physico chemical characteristics: boiling CaCl2 extractable B: 2.3 mg/kg


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- pregermination: imbibe on moist filter paper in petri dishes stored ar 2-4°C for two days and then placed at room temperature (20-25°C) for one day.
- soil preparation: 4 levels of applied boron. The exact test substance was not reported. No information on method of application or mixing
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 20, 40, 60 mg B/kg soil
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Pisum sativum
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
dry matter yield
Remarks on result:
other: genotype M93., 7% inhibition at NOEC, 32% inhibition at LOEC (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
Pisum sativum
Duration:
49 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
dry matter yield
Remarks on result:
other: all 13 other genotypes, inhibition at 20 mg B/kg dw vaies between24 and 52%
Details on results:
% dry matter yield inhibition at 20 mg B/kg dw varies between 7 and 52%.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Data for dry matter production and tissue boron concentrations were subjected to square root and logarithmic (loge) transformations, respectively. All data were analysed by factorial analysis and the significance of differences between means was calculated by the LSD test at significance level of 0.01. All NOEC/LOEC values are based on the data presented in Table 4 of the original study. The NOEC values are derived based on the LSD. The % inhibition is calculated as 100 – relative dry matter yield (as reported in columns 3, 4 and 5 of Table 4 in the original study)
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
The results are not considered reliable and are not used for PNEC derivation (this study does not follow standard guidelines, insufficent information on methods and results: the test substance is not reported, the study contains no information on B application and no soil properties are reported).
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, only control and 1 or 2 doses tested, LSD calculated for genotype x B effect, not for B effect alone
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
plant growth test
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
B (as H3BO3) was dissolved in warm water and applied in solution to soil in plastic bags at 0, 15 and 25 mg/kg.
Species:
other: Lens culinaris
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: lentil
- lentil accessions ILL2024, ILL213A, ILL5883 and Laird ILL4139 and two australian lentil varieties Cassb ILL7200 and Nugget ILL7180
- 300 lentil accessions from diverse geographic locations were screened for B tolerance
- seed origin: coordinated impovement program of australian lentil (CIPAL) breeding program and the australian temperate fields crop collection (ATFCC)
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
field study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
103 d
Remarks:
+ further grown until maturity, number of days not reported
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
10-20°C
pH:
7.5 (CaCl2)
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: temperature controlled glasshouse
- Test container (type, material, size): non-draining plastic boxes (64x40x26 cm)
- Amount of soil: 50 kg
- Method of seeding: 12 rows were sown per box, soil kept at 85% field capacity.
- No. of seeds per container: 16; pregerminated for 2 days in moist paper towel and 4 imbeded seeds of each accession were sown 2cm deep and 4cm apart in a single row.
- No. of replicates: 2
- Harvest: inidividual plants were scored at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after emergence


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Birchip (35°98'S, 142°92'E) in southern victoria, Australia
- Sampling depth (cm): 5-20 cm
- Soil texture
- exchangeable Mg: 3.2 meq/100g
- exchangeable Na: 0.1 meq/100
- exchangeable P: 2.0 meq/100g
- exchangeable sodium percentage: 0.1
- pH: 7.5
- total carbon: 2.1%
- olsen P: 29 mg/kg
- CaCl2 extractable boron: 0.9 mg/kg
- Soil taxonomic classification: sandy calcarosol
- field capacity: 13.5% w/w
- wilting point 7.5% w/w
- Pretreatment of soil: sieved, steam pasteurised and resieved




GROWTH CONDITIONS

- Watering regime and schedules: watered weekly with uniform amount of reverse-osmosis water to replace losses
- Any pest control method/fertilization (if used): basal nutrient mix (osmocote 3-4 months, librl iron chelate, micromax and IBDU nitrogen fertiliser)

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, (15) and 25 mg/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL2024
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Remarks on result:
other: 1% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris Cassab
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL213A
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL5883
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Lens culinaris Laird
Duration:
103 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Lens culinaris Nugget
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL2024
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: 9% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris cassab
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL213A
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
12.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as LOEC/2
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL5883
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
other: Lens culinaris Laird
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
other: Lens culinaris Nugget
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL2024
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: 15% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris cassab
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Species:
other: Lens xulinaris IL213A
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: 38% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL5883
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Species:
other: Lens culinaris laird
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Species:
other: Lens culinaris nugget
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Species:
other: Lens culinaris
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Remarks on result:
other: 47% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris cassab
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 15 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL213A
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Remarks on result:
other: 19% inhibition
Species:
other: Lens culinaris ILL5883
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Species:
other: Lens culinaris laird
Duration:
103 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Species:
other: Lens culinaris nuget
Duration:
76 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 25 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield seed
Details on results:
NOEC data (based on nominal added B dose)) varied between <15 and >= 25 mg B/kg dw.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
REML analysis was performed using GenStat 6. Data were subjected to loge transformation when required. The Wald statistic was used to determine significant differences between treatments. Least significant of difference (LSD) of interaction at p<0.001 was determined and used for deriving NOEC and LOEC values.

nr

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Study is considered not reliable and results are not used for PNEC derivation (study does not follow standard guidelines, only the control group and 1 or 2 doses were tested, the least significant of difference was calculated for genotype x Boron effect, but not for Boron effect alone). The pH of the non EU soil tested was above the 10-90th percentile bounderies for EU soils.
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed but well performed and well documented study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
90 day plant growth test with Medicago sativa
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Soil and fertilizer materials (KNO3, Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, KCl, FeEDDHA and ZnSO4) were thoroughly mixed and put in 1.8 L pots. Boron was supplied as Na2B4O7.10H2O.
Species:
other: Medicago sativa L.
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: alfalfa
- cultivars: ladak, rambler, riley and agate
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
90 d
pH:
pH in saturated paste:
Keith soil: 8.4
Ulysses soil: 7.3
Ascalon soil: 7.4
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): 1.8 L pots
- No. of replicates: 3
- Two harvests (after 45 and 90 days)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Colorado, USA
- Keith soil:
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Argiustoll
- pH: 8.4
- Organic matter (%): 2.1
- % sand: 16
- % silt: 58
- % clay: 26
- Ulysses soil
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Haplustoll
- pH: 7.3
- Organic matter (%): 1.4
- % sand: 49
- % silt: 30
- % clay: 21
- Ascalon soil
- soil classification (USDA system): Aridic Argiustoll
- pH: 7.4
- Organic matter (%): 1.1
- % sand: 84
- % silt: 2
- % clay: 14

- Pretreatment of soil: air-dried, ground and sived through 6 mm screen. Soil and fertilizers were thoroughly mixed
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 10, 20, 40 mg B/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 11% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 48% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 20% growth inhibition at NOEC, 37% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 18% growth inhibition at NOEC, 68% inhibition at LOEC (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 18% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Ladak
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 6% growth inhibition at NOEC, 47% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 4% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 33% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 3% growth inhibition at NOEC, 65% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 18% growth inhibition at NOEC, 66% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
< 10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 32% growth inhibition at lowest dose tested (10 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Rambler
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 13% growth inhibition at NOEC, 62% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 11% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 14% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 4% growth inhibition at NOEC, 43% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 4% growth inhibition at NOEC, 39% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 13% growth stimulation at NOEC, 35% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw))
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Riley
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 14% growth inhibition at NOEC, 41% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 1% growth inhibition compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 40 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Keith soil, 28% growth stimulation compared to control at largest dose tested (40 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, NOEC calculated as LOEC/2 with 14% inhibition at LOEC
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ulysses soil, 11% growth inhibition at NOEC, 34% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
45 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 19% growth stimulation at NOEC, 26% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Species:
other: Medicago sativa, cv Agate
Duration:
90 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: Ascalon soil, 8% growth inhibition at NOEC, 42% inhibition at LOEC (20 mg B/kg dw)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC and LOEC values were derived based on ANOVA (Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% significance level The NOEC/LOEC values are based on the data reported in Table 3 of the original study. Values within a column for each cultivar followed by the same letter do not differ significantly at the 5% level (Duncan’s multiple range test). Consequently, the NOEC is the highest B dose followed by the same letter as the control.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study does not follow standard test guidelines but is well performed and well documented. All bounded NOEC values are selected for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, B substance not reported, no information on B concentration in irrigation water during the experiment and therefore no control of exposure concentration during the experiment.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
nr
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
nr
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: musk melon variety top mark (cantaloupe)
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
field study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
95 d
Remarks:
06/12 - 11/15
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
20-40°C (min and max)
pH:
nr
Moisture:
nr
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: outdoor
- Test container (type, material, size): 20l buckets
- No. of seeds per container: 4
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 2 per pot
- soils were irrigated during the experiment


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: section 4 of the broadview walter district in the san joaquin valley of california
- Collection procedures: using a shovel, 2000 kg of soil
- Sampling depth (cm): 0-25 cm
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 5.56
- % silt: 40.10
- % clay: 54.34
- Soil taxonomic classification: silty clay, belonging to the lollos soil series (very fine, smectitic thermic halic haploxerert)
- Organic carbon (%): 0.80
- Inorganic carbon content (%): 0.23
- Aluminium oxide content (%): 0.0923
- Iron oxide content (%): 1.187
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth):
- Pretreatment of soil: homogenised and crushed through 0.635cm screen. Fertilizer was applied preplant.


PHOTOPERIOD
- 14 h day length

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 3.8, 8.0, 13.1, 18.0, 27.0 and 42.7 mg B/kg dw
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 42.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield leaves
Remarks on result:
other: 16% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 42.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield stem
Remarks on result:
other: 59% stimulation at largest dose tested
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
21.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield fruit
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
12.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield fruit
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
39.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: Cucumis melo
Duration:
95 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
43.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Details on results:
- boron was extracted by 3 different methods and extractes were analysed by ICP-OES
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC for leave and stem yield based on average values and standard deviations reported. EC10 values for fruit and total plant yield were based on a log-logistic dose-response curve fitted by minimising unweighted squared residuals sum (maximum likelihood)

nr

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study did not follow standard guidelines. Results are not used for PNEC derivation (The Boron substance used is not reported, there is no information on Boron concentrations in the irrigation water during the experiment and therefore there is no control of exposure concentration during the experiment).
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, only tested in B deficiency range
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
plant growth test with clover
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
no
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
nr
Species:
other: Trifolium vesiculosum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: arrowleaf clover
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Total exposure duration:
4.5 mo
Remarks:
until flowering
pH:
4.3-4.5
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: greenhouse complex of the soil department of the federal university of parana state, curitiba, brazil
- No. of seeds per container: 10 seeds per pot
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 4 plants per pot
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 6
- No. of replicates per control:
- No. of replicates per vehicle control:


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: grassland field in ponta grossa, parana, Brazil
- Collection procedures: recreated with a white plastic column (20 cm diameter, 63 cm long) with three layers of soil
- Sampling depth (cm): 3 lauers: 0-20cm (A), 20-40 cm(B) and 40-60 cm(C)
- Soil texture A
- % sand: 70
- % silt: 8
- % clay: 22
- Soil texture
- % sand: 66
- % silt: 12
- % clay: 22
- Soil texture
- % sand: 72
- % silt: 8
- % clay: 20
- Soil taxonomic classification: cambissolo alico with medium texture, high Al content en low pH, organic matter and nutrients
- Organic matter (C*1.72): 8.2-12.9 g/dm3
- Maximum water holding capacity (in % dry weigth):
- CEC: 6.9-7.9
- Pretreatment of soil: soil A was limed and fertilized with 320 and 140 kg/ha of P2O5 en K2O one month before and at the day of planting. Soil B and C did not receive lime and fertilizer.

Nominal and measured concentrations:
6 rates: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and 2 kg/ha B
Species:
other: Trifolium vesiculosum
Duration:
135 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 0.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Species:
other: Trifolium vesiculosum
Duration:
135 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 0.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Species:
other: Trifolium vesiculosum
Duration:
135 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 0.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Details on results:
total soil concentrations were not measured
NOEC valiues were all >= 0.7 mg B/kg dw
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
analyses of variance was made using SAS software.A regression betweent he log and log mean was perfored for each variable to define which transformation should be used.

nr

Conclusions:
This study did not follow standard guideline followed. The test was conducted only in the Boron deficiency range. Results are not used for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, response values derived from grpahs, weak fit of the dose response curve, no information on variation among replicates.
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
nr
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
nr
Species:
other: X. Triticosecale WITTMACK
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- hybrid of wheat and barley
- common name: triticosecale
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- wheat
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Remarks:
not reported
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
nr
pH:
4.0
Moisture:
20 g/dm3
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: greenhouse, Botucatu-SP
- Test container (type, material, size): 10L pots
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 12
- No. of replicates: 4
- 4x4 factorial scheme


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Collection procedures: dried in the arable layer, sieved (2mm) and analyzed
- Soil taxonomic classification: medium textured dystrophic Haplodux
- CTC: 67 mmol c/dm3
- Pretreatment of soil: lining was done to increase base saturation to 60% using dolomite limestone
- Storage (condition, duration): kept covered for 20 days


Nominal and measured concentrations:
0,0.62, 1.24, 1.86 mg/dm3
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar iac 3
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield grain
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar BR4
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield grain
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar BR53
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
0.21 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield grain
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield grain
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar IAC3
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar BR4
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Species:
other: X Tritosecale WITTMACK cultivar BR53
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
total plant
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
> 1.33 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Details on results:
- Chemical analysis to determine B background concentration ws done using Hot Water Method. No measurements of total B concentration in soil.
- EC10 zdded data varied between 0.21 and >1.33 mg B/kg dw (0.29 to 1.86 mg B/dm3).
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Dose-response curves were fitted with linear regression analysis (2nd order linear regression). No information on variation among replicates.
No NOEC values reported.

nr

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study did not follow standard guidelines. The response values were derived from graphs and there is a weak fit of the dose response curve.
There is no information available on variation among replicates. Results are not used for PNEC derivation.
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
4 (not assignable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed, limited information on soil characteristics, no information on equilibration period, limited information on statistics
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to same study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
nr
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Details on properties of test surrogate or analogue material (migrated information):
nr
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
nr
Vehicle:
not specified
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
nr
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
nr
Test type:
seedling emergence toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
42 d
Post exposure observation period:
nr
Test temperature:
10/22°c day/night
pH:
8.0
Moisture:
75% field capacity
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: glasshouse
- Test container (type, material, size): pvc pots 104mm diameter and 300 mm depth
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: paddock in NW victoria
- Sampling depth (cm): 50 mm
- Pretreatment of soil: sieved (2mm) and amnded with B and/or NaCl


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Day/night temperatures: 10/22°C
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 12, 24 mg/kg dw
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
42 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: calculated as LOEC/2; 11% inhibition at LOEC (12 mg B/kg dw)
Details on results:
no analytics of total B concentrations in soil
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
least significant difference was determined at the 5% level

nr

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
Results are not reliable and are not used for PNEC derivation (study did not follow standard test guidelines, it contains limited information on soil characteristics, no information on equilibration period and limited information on statistics)
Executive summary:

nr

Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: northern wheatgrass
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: streambank wheatgrass
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Western wheatgrass
Species:
Allium cepa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Spanish onion
Species:
Avena sativa
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Oat
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: American sloughgrass
Species:
Brassica napus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: Canola
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: cabbage
Species:
Brassica rapa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: turnip
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: mountain bromegrass
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron riparium
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Agropyron dasystachyum
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
40.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Agropyron smithii
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Allium cepa
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Avena sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
16.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
36.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Beckmannia syzigachne
Duration:
24 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield whole plant
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 g/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica napus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
23.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Brassica rapa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
26.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
32.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
common name: mountain bromegrass
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: bluejoint marsh reed
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: cucumber
Species:
Daucus carota
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: carrot
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: red fescue
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: soybean
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: barley
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: June grass
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: lettuce
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: flax
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
common name: little bluestem
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass


Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Bromus marginatus
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam field soil
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
16.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Calamagrostis canadensis
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
45.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Cucumis sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
22 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
27.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Daucus carota
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
23.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Festuca rubra
Duration:
6 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield total plant
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Glycine max (G. soja)
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Duration:
9 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Koeleria macrantha
Duration:
9 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
22.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
37 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loamsoil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial sandy loam
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lactuca sativa
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
30.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
49 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
in yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissumum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Linum usitatissimum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
field root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
other: Schizachyrium scoparium
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
52 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Results with reference substance (positive control):
nr
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test but selection criteria fulfilled for klimisch 2
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Seedling emergency and seedling growth tests with thirty plant species.
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boric acid was added in solution to soil and mixed until visible uniformity of colour and texture. The final soil moisture was 30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC. Soils were left to equilibrate for one day before the start of the tests.
Species:
Lolium perenne
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
perennial ryegrass
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
tomato
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
alfalfa
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: tomothy
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
-c ommon name: radish
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: red clover
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: wheat
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
- common name: corn
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
other: natural + artificial soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
24 d
Remarks:
depending on the plant species (4-24 days)
Test temperature:
24°C +/- 2°C
pH:
artificial soil: 6.4-6.6
clay-loam reference soil: 6.1-6.3
Moisture:
30-40% (based on wet weight), corresponding to 70% of WHC
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test facility: 16 sq ft. environmental growth camber
- Testing container (type, material, size): covered glass petri dish (100 x 15 mm)
- Amount of soil: 70 g of soil dw (100 g of wet weight)
- No. of replicates per treatment: 4
- No. of treatments: 6 (including the experimental control for each soil type)
- No. of replicates per control: 4
- No. of seeds per container: 5 or 10 (depending on the species)


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL SOIL
- Ingredients: 70% silica sand, 20%, kaolinity clay, 10%, sphangum peat and maximum 0.3% calcium carbonate.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 76.4
- % silt: 8.9
- % clay: 14.8
- Total carbon (%): 2.15
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.02
- Organic matter (%): 3-5
- pH water (1:2): 6.4-6.6
- eCEC: 6-9 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 3.5 mg B/kg dw

SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY LOAM REFERENCE SOIL
- collected soil from Alberta (Canada)
- classified as a Delacour Orthic Black Chernozem.
- Soil texture
- % sand: 26.6
- % silt: 42.8
- % clay: 30.6
- Total carbon (%): 6.48
- Total nitrogen (%): 0.62
- Organic matter (%): 11.6-12.2
- pH water (1:2): 6.1-6.3
- eCEC: 36 cmol c/kg
- background B concentration: 1.0 mg B/kg dw
- The soil beneath the sod was air-dried to about 10-20% moisture content, sieved (4 mm or 9 mm) and stored at 4°C until needed.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Growth chamber was used
- Temperature: 24°C +/- 2°C
- Simulated natural sunlight (fluorescent VitaLite(r) lighting
- Light intensity: 765 µmoles/m2/s
- Photoperiod: 16h light / 8h dark , except for the first 48h (dark)

Test endpoints: seedling emergence, shoot/root length, shoot/root wet/dry phytomass, or whole plant wet/dry phytomass

Nominal and measured concentrations:
0-160-240-320-480-640 mg boric acid/kg dw,
corresponding to 28-42-56-84-112 mg B/kg dw.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
17.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
other: Phleum pratense
Duration:
7 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
38 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
46.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Raphanus sativus
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
17.1 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: artificial soil
Species:
Trifolium pratense
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
55.8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
84 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: on clay loam soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Triticum aestivum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
34.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
30.5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
28 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lolium perenne
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
27.7 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
15.3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil, NOEC calculated as EC20/2
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Lycopersicon esculentum
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
47.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
34.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
seedling emergence
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil, calculated as ECx/2
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
other: Medicago sativa
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
root length
Remarks on result:
other: in clay loam soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
42 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: in artificial soil
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
5 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
56 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield root
Remarks on result:
other: clay loam soil
Details on results:
Test results measured but not mentioned in the summary table are not reliable because:
- the estimated EC20 value is lower than the lowest tested concentration, or
- the estimated EC20 value is higher than the highest tested concentration, or
- there is no clear dose response relationship
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC50 and EC20 values were generated using the Probit method
NOEC values were estimated using anova p<0.05
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study followed no standard guidelines but meets basic scientific principles, is well documented and tests are well described.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard test guideline followed but well performed and well documented study
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
reference to other study
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
70-day plant growth test with Zea mays
GLP compliance:
no
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Boron was added to the soil in powder form (as boric acid). Soils were thoroughly mixed and irrigated to field capacity.
Species:
Zea mays
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Test type:
vegetative vigour test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
10 wk
Post exposure observation period:
not reported
Test temperature:
not reported
pH:
7.5
Moisture:
not reported
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Location: greenhouse
- Test container (type, material, size): plastic pots, 1.6L
- Amount of soil: 2 kg
- treatments: B and Zn added to the soil in powder form, each pot was fertilized
- No. of seeds per container: 6 uniform seeds
- No. of plants (retained after thinning): 3 (2 weeks after emergence)
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: uncultivated field from Iran
- Sampling depth (cm): ap horizon
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
- % sand: 36
- % silt: 42
- % clay: 22
- Soil taxonomic classification: fine, mixed, mesic, fluventic haploxerepts
- Organic matter (%): 0.6
- electrical conductivity: 0.5 dS/m
- CEC: 11.5 cmol/kg
- DTPA extractable Zn: 0.4 mg/kg
- Hot water solubel boron: 0.22 mg/kg
- Pretreatment of soil: air dried and grinded through a 2mm sieve
Nominal and measured concentrations:
0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 an 80 mg B/kg
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
10 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Remarks on result:
other: 7% stimulation compared to control
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
15.9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
63.4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
plant height
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
5 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Remarks on result:
other: 6% inhibition compared to control
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
7.2 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Species:
Zea mays
Duration:
70 d
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
33.6 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
yield shoot
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC and LOEC values for dry matter yield and plant height were derived based on analysis of variance using MSTATC computer program. ECx values were calculated based on data reported and a log-logistic dose-response curve fitted by minimising unweighted squared residuals sum (maximum likelihood).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
This study does not follow standard test guidelines but is well performed and well documented and therefore reliable. The EC10 values are used for PNEC derivation.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
3 (not reliable)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: no standard guideline followed, large uncertainty on exposure concentrations
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
14 day seedling growth test with sunflower
GLP compliance:
not specified
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
not reported
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
Basal nutrients (N, K, S, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo) were added in solution form and mixed throughout the soil. Soils 4, 5 and 6 were limed (with CaCO3) to a pH of 6.5. Boron, as H3BO3 in solution, was applied at rates which covered the sufficiency and toxicity ranges. Soils were mixed and brought to field capacity (10kPa matric suction). Soils were left to equilibrate for 7 days before the start of the tests.
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Plant group:
Dicotyledonae (dicots)
Details on test organisms:
- Common name: sunflower
- Source of seed: pregerminated
Test type:
early seedling growth toxicity test
Study type:
other: filed+greenhouse study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
14 d
pH:
pH in water (1:5)
soil 1: 5.9
soil 2: 5.7
soil 3: 5.7
soil 4: 5.1 (6.5 after liming)
soil 5: 4.8 (6.5 after liming)
soil 6: 4.8 (6.5 after liming)
Moisture:
field capacity
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test container (type, material, size): propylene containers, 11cm high, 6cm diameter
- no. of replicates per treatment: 3
- No. of plants per container: 2


SOIL PROPERTIES
6 soils from Australia
- Soil texture soil 1: loamy sand
- % sand: 78
- % silt: 15
- % clay: 8
- Soil texture soil 2: sand
- % sand: 93
- % silt: 6
- % clay: 2
- Soil texture soil 3: sandy loam
- % sand: 78
- % silt: 10
- % clay: 12
- Soil texture soil 4: sand
- % sand: 98
- % silt: 1
- % clay: 1
- Soil texture soil 5: loamy sand
- % sand: 82
- % silt: 8
- % clay: 10
- Soil texture soil 6: silty clay
- % sand: 18
- % silt: 32
- % clay: 49
- Organic carbon (%):
- soil 1: 0.7
- soil 2: 0.5
- soil 3: 1.1
- soil 4: 0.1
- soil 5: 0.7
- soil 6: 1.7
- Pretreatment of soil: all soils were air-dried and sieved (<5mm).
- Soil preparation: Basal nutriënts were added in solution form and mixed throughout the soil. Soils 4,5 and 6 were limed (with CaCO3) to a pH of 6.5. Boron, as H3BO3 in solution, was applied at rates which covered the sufficiency and toxicity ranges. Soils were mixed and brought to field capacity. Soils were wet with deionized water to 10kPa matric solution and allowed to incubate for 7 days.


GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Day/night temperatures: 16h day at 30°C, 8h night at 25°C
- Relative humidity (%): 70
- Dionized water added daily to maintian matric solution of 10kPa.
- 4 days after emergence plants were sprayed with 1% iron chelate solution
- Licht intensity: low light intensity prior to harvest
Nominal and measured concentrations:
soils 1-4: 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 8 kg B/ha
soils 5-6: 0; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 6; 8; 12 kg B/ha
In order to convert rates in kg/ha to mg/kg, assumptions must be made on mixing depth and bulk density. This information is not reported in the original study report.
Reference substance (positive control):
not specified
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 8 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
meas. (geom. mean)
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 1, 2% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 2, 8% inhibition at NOEC, 24% inhibition at LOEC (4 kg B/ha)
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 8 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 3, 15% inhibition at largest dose tested
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
2 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 4, 0% inhibition at NOEC; 24% inhibition at LOEC (4 kg B/ha)
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
6 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 5, 4% inhibition at NOEC, 17% inhibition at LOEC (8 kg B/ha)
Species:
Helianthus annuus
Duration:
14 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 12 kg/ha
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
B
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks:
shoot yield
Remarks on result:
other: soil 6, 16% inhibition at largest dose tested
Reported statistics and error estimates:
NOEC values are derived based on the reported Least Significant Difference (LSD, at significance level of P < 0.05) between treatments. No information was presented on how this LSD value was derived. The NOEC value is derived based on Table 2 of the original study, taking into account the LSD (least significant difference) to determine the NOEC and conversion kg B/ha to mg B/kg soil (e.g. 8 kg B/ha = 5.7 mg B/kg).
Validity criteria fulfilled:
not specified
Conclusions:
No standard guideline was followed, but the study was well performed and well documented.
Results are not used for PNEC derivation because there is a large uncertainty in the exposure concentration expressed as mg B/kg dw. Actual B concentrations are not measured and application rates are reported as kg B/ha, without information on mixing depth or bulk desnity.
Endpoint:
toxicity to terrestrial plants: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: meets generally accepted scientific standards, well documented and acceptable for hazard assessment
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to guideline
Guideline:
other: ISO 11269-1 (1993): barley root elongation
Deviations:
not specified
GLP compliance:
yes
Remarks:
The study has no formal GLP status, but it study was performed by qualified staff according to international guidelines and can therefore be considered as GLP-confom.
Analytical monitoring:
yes
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
A stock solution of the weak acid H3BO3 was made (25 g/l). Soils were spiked in doses within the range of 0-293 mg B/kg by mixing the B solutions in the soil using a laboratory spoon.
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Plant group:
Monocotyledonae (monocots)
Details on test organisms:
-common name: barley grass
Test type:
seed germination/root elongation toxicity test
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
natural soil
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
4 d
Test temperature:
20°C
pH:
Soil E1: 4.4
Soil E2: 5.2
Soil E3: 6.3
Soil E4: 6.7
Soil E5: 6.8
Soil E6: 7.3
Soil E7: 7.8
Soil B1: 5.0
Soil B2: 4.5
Soil B3: 5.2
Soil B4: 6.8
Soil B5: 6.0
Soil B6: 4.4
Soil B7: 7.1
Soil U1: 7.2
Soil U2: 7
Soil U3: 7.4
Soil U4: 7.3
Soil U5: 7.7
Moisture:
80% of pF 2
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Testing facility: growth cabinet
- Test container (type, material, size): cylindrical pots, approximately 2.8 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height
- Amount of soil: 80-100g wet weight
- Method of seeding: Summer barley seeds were pregerminated at 20°C in darkness. Three seeds with a radical length lower than 2 mm were planted in each pot approximately 10 mm beneath the surface of the soil.
- No. of seeds per container: 1
- No. of replicates per treatment group: 3
- No. of replicates per control: 3


SOURCE AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTRATE (if soil)
- Geographic location: Fourteen European soils, 5 soils from USA
- Soil texture (if natural soil)
Soil E1: 9 % sand, 5 % silt, 20 % clay
Soil E2: 81 % sand, 8 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil E3: 43% sand, 16% silt, 27 % clay
Soil E4: 8% sand, 70% silt, 12 % clay
Soil E5: 51% sand, 11 % silt, 33 % clay
Soil E6: 20% sand, 50 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil E7: 34% sand, 16 % silt, 11 % clay
Soil B1: 10% sand, 9 % silt, 13 % clay
Soil B2: 84 % sand, 71 % silt, 2 % clay
Soil B3: 4% sand, 66 % silt, 19 % clay
Soil B4: 31% sand, 34 % silt, 14 % clay
Soil B5: 18% sand, 67 % silt, 17 % clay
Soil B6: 37% sand, 45 % silt, 10 % clay
Soil B7: 17% sand, - % silt, 19 % clay
Soil U1: 5.8 % clay
Soil U2: 9.6 % clay
Soil U3: 2.1 % clay
Soil U4: 31.1 % clay
Soil U5: 17.5 % clay

- Organic carbon (%):
Soil E1: 30.7
Soil E2: 1.8
Soil E3: 3.6
Soil E4: 0.9
Soil E5: 0.6
Soil E6: 2.8
Soil E7: 3.6
Soil B1: nd (not determined)
Soil B2: nd
Soil B3: nd
Soil B4: nd
Soil B5: nd
Soil B6: nd
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: 0.52
Soil U2: 0.72
Soil U3: 0.14
Soil U4: 0.78
Soil U5: 0.60

- CEC (cmolc/kg):
Soil E1: 41.7
Soil E2: 4.1
Soil E3: 30
Soil E4: 12.2
Soil E5: 14.2
Soil E6: 14.3
Soil E7: 14.1
Soil B1: 13.8
Soil B2: 14.6
Soil B3: 9.6
Soil B4: 16.3
Soil B5: 12.2
Soil B6: 37.7
Soil B7: nd
Soil U1: nd
Soil U2: nd
Soil U3: nd
Soil U4: nd
Soil U5: nd

- Pretreatment of soil: All soils were air dried at 25° C and sieved to <4 mm.

GROWTH CONDITIONS
- Photoperiod: 12h/12h cycle light/darkness
- Light source: natural light
- Day/night temperatures: 20/16°C
- Relative humidity (%): 70

ACCLIMATION PERIOD: root elongation was tested in soils either immediately after spiking with boric acid and after 1 and 5 months equilibration (ageing). Soils were aged at 80% of pF 2 at 20° C in closed pots that had headspace of about 50% of the volume and which were regularly opened for air exchange.

EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED : The endpoint of this assay is the mean length of the longest root of each seedling per pot after 4 days



Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal added concentrations: control, 3.0, 7.5, 18.8, 46.9, 117.2, 293.0 mg added B/kg dry matter
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
27 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E1. 95% CL:17-42
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
3 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E2. 95%CL: 2-3
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
16 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E3. 95%CL: 11-23
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E4. 95%CL: 6-13
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E6. 95%CL: 12-30
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
14 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil E7. 95%CL: 7-27
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B2. 95%CL: 5-14
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
9 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B3. 95%CL: 5-17
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
11 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B4. 95%CL: 9-13
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
18 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B5. 95%CL: 13-24
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
17 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B6. 95%CL: 14-21
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
19 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil B7. 95%CL: 14-28
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
8 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U1. 95%CL: 5-11
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
13 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U2. 95%CL: 9-18
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
4 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U3. 95%CL: 3-6
Species:
Hordeum vulgare
Duration:
4 d
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
20 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
element
Remarks:
added B
Basis for effect:
other: root elongation
Remarks on result:
other: for freshly spiked soil U4. 95%CL: 13-31
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Dose-response curves were fitted by a log-logistic model using the Marquardt Method.
The ED10/ED50 model was adjusted to account for hormesis effects when the root growth in the soils with added B was at least 20% higher compared to the control soil. The ‘dose’ in this model is the added B concentration (nominal concentration), and ED10 values and their 95% confidence interval, expressed as added B, are predicted from the appropriate parameters of the curve.
Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Reliable study. For each soil, the geomean of the EC10 values for all three equilibration periods (immediately after spiking or after 1 or 5 months ageing) is used for PNEC derivation.

Description of key information

All selected NOEC/EC10 values from long term single-species toxicity tests with higher plants are summarised in the table listing effects to terrestrial plants. All these values are considered reliable (Klimisch score 1 and 2) and relevant for the effects assessment. Thereby all data are based on added doses (nominal or measured), as background concentrations are not always available and the added risk approach will be followed because of the significant difference in bioavailability between boron naturally present in soils and added soluble B. In total 192 individual high quality NOEC/EC10 values (for 28 different species) are selected for the PNEC derivation, ranging from 3 mg B/kg for barley root elongation in Zwijnaarde soil (Van Laer et al., 2010) to 84.0 mg B/kg for wheat shoot length, canola shoot yield and western wheatgrass root yield (Aquaterra, 1998). A large number of papers were assessed from the literature, yet only a limited toxicity dataset could be created due to the poor quality of most of the data.

Please also refer to read-across statement section 13.

Nominal or measured, as background concentrations are not always available and the added risk approach will be followed because of the significant difference in bioavailability between boron naturally present in soils and added soluble B. In total 192 individual high quality NOEC/EC10 values (for 28 different species) are selected for the PNEC derivation, ranging from 3 mg B/kg for barley root elongation in Zwijnaarde soil (Van Laer et al., 2010) to 84.0 mg B/kg for wheat shoot length, canola shoot yield and western wheatgrass root yield (Aquaterra, 1998).

A large number of papers were assessed from the literature, yet only a limited toxicity dataset could be created due to the poor quality of most of the data.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information