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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
no data
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Well documented, scientifically sound study that was conducted according to EPA OTS 798.2650 (90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Justification for type of information:
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH: The hypothesis is that properties are likely to be similar or follow a similar pattern because of the presence of a common metal ion, in this case tungstate.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES):
Source: Sodium tungstate
Target: Tungsten Trioxide
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION: See Annex 1 in CSR
4. DATA MATRIX: See Annex 1 in CSR
Cross-referenceopen allclose all
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Reference
Endpoint:
sub-chronic toxicity: oral
Type of information:
read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
Well documented, scientifically sound study that was conducted according to EPA OTS 798.2650 (90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Justification for type of information:
1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH: The hypothesis is that properties are likely to be similar or follow a similar pattern because of the presence of a common metal ion, in this case tungstate.
2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES):
Source: Sodium tungstate
Target: Tungsten Trioxide
3. CATEGORY APPROACH JUSTIFICATION: See Annex 1 in CSR
4. DATA MATRIX: See Annex 1 in CSR
Reason / purpose:
assessment report
Reason / purpose:
read-across source
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OTS 798.2650 (90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Sodium tungstate dihydrate (Tungstic acid sodium salt dihydrate, Na2WO42H2O, CAS # 10213-10-2, Batch # 12330JO) 99% pure
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: SD
Details on species / strain selection:
5-week-old SD rats were purchased from Charles River laboratories, Raleigh, North Carolina
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
Animals were held for 1 week in quarantine prior to initiation of treatments. At the start of testing, rats weighed between 199 and 230 g. Test animals were identified by individual cage cards and microchip implants and were individually housed in
polycarbonate cages. Bedding was placed in the bottom of each cage and replaced twice weekly. Drinking quality water and a certified laboratory diet were available ad libitum. Animal rooms were maintained at 64 F to 79 F, with relative humidity of 30% to 70% and a 12-hour light–dark cycle.
Route of administration:
oral: drinking water
Details on route of administration:
Sodium tungstate dihydrate was solubilized with DI water to produce 4 dosing solutions
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
The dose levels were selected on the basis of our previous studies where the highest dose used was 200 mg/kg/ d in a subchronic toxicity study. Sodium tungstate dihydrate was solubilized with DI water to produce 4 dosing solutions of
200, 125, 75, and 10 mg Na2WO4/mL.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Tungstate concentrations of the dosing solutions were verified by the Aberdeen Test Center and found to be consistent for purity and stability during the study period
Duration of treatment / exposure:
A 90-day oral toxicity study
Frequency of treatment:
Test chemical solutions were administered daily (7 days per week) for 90 days. A 16 GA 2-in stainless steel gavage needle
Dose / conc.:
10 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
Following 1-week quarantine/acclimatization period, 50 male and 50 female SD rats were randomly distributed
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
Sodium tungstate dihydrate was solubilized with DI water to produce 4 dosing solutions of 200, 125, 75, and 10 mg Na2WO4/mL.
Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
A clinical examination was made for each animal prior to initiation of treatment and once weekly during treatment. Observations included but were not limited to changes in skin and fur, eyes, mucous membranes, occurrence of secretions and excretions, and autonomic activity (eg, lacrimation, piloerection, pupil size, and unusual respiratory pattern). Changes in gait, posture, and response to handling as well as the presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypes (eg, excessive grooming, repetitive circling), or bizarre behavior (eg, selfmutilation, walking backward) were recorded according to testing guidelines. Body and feeder weights were recorded on days .3, .1, 0 (first day of dosing), 7, and weekly thereafter. Doses were adjusted weekly to reflect the change in individual body weights. Animals were observed daily for any toxic signs.
Sacrifice and pathology:
Blood was collected. Each rat was then submitted for complete necropsy. The brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, thymus, epididymis/uterus, and testes/ovaries were removed and weighed for absolute organ weights. The tissues harvested for histopathological evaluation included the brain, pituitary, thyroid with parathyroid gland, thymus, lungs, trachea, heart, bone marrow, salivary gland, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovaries, uterus, aorta, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon, urinary bladder, salivary lymph node peripheral nerve (siatic), thigh musculature (vastus lateralis), eye, spinal cord (3 levels), and exorbital lachrymal gland.

Hematology parameters included white blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, platelets, and mean platelet volume.

Clinical chemistry parameters measured included The clinical chemistry analytes ialkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine kinase, creatinine, glucose (GLU; nonfasting), lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein, triglycerides, Na, K, and Cl

Urinalysis included appearance, pH, specific gravity, GLU, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketone, blood, protein, nitrite, and leukocytes.
Other examinations:
Ophthalmic examinations were performed on all control and treated animals prior to the scheduled start of the study and within a week of the scheduled 90-day necropsies. Urinalysis was also performed on 8 of 10 animals from all dose
groups (including negative control) within 2 weeks of the final (90-day) necropsies
Statistics:
Food consumption, body weights, and absolute organ weights were compared among dosage groups and controls using ANOVA. When significance was observed, the data were further analyzed using a Dunnett test to compare the doses to the control group. Statistical significance was defined at the P <05 level. Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis data were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to compare dosage groups to the control group.
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
- No evidence of overt toxicity and no treatment-related clinical signs were seen in any dose levels.
- Results showed that rats dosed with sodium tungstate in water for 90 consecutive days had no abnormal clinical signs at any of the dose levels
Mortality:
mortality observed, non-treatment-related
Description (incidence):
No unscheduled deaths (a single male rat in 200 mg/kg/d dose group was moribund and was euthanized on day 79; a few tissues from this rat were submitted for histopathological examination and death was determined to be not compound related
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There were significant decreases in food consumption in male rats at 200 mg/kg/d from weeks of 4 to 13, while there was no change in food consumption in female rats during the 90-day study
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
There were significant decreases in food consumption in male rats at 200 mg/kg/d from weeks of 4 to 13, while there was no change in food consumption in female rats during the 90-day study changes in female rats in any dose groups throughout study
period when compared to control rats.
Food efficiency:
not specified
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not specified
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Ophthalmic examinations prior to study initiation and within
a week of the scheduled necropsies revealed no abnormalities
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Male and female rats showed no significant differences in any hematological parameters at any dose levels of sodium tungstate
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
The results of clinical chemistry parameters studied in rats showed no significant changes in any dose levels of sodium tungstate in rats. The parameters studied showed some changes in levels that were not dose related and insignificant and considered within normal range limits when compared to controls. All other parameters were found to be similar to control rats.

Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Examination of urine samples taken approximately 1 week prior to necropsy revealed no significant changes in volume, specific gravity, or pH. No distinct dose-related trends were observed in GLU, bilirubin, ketone, blood, protein, urobilinogen,
nitrite, or leukocytes
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
The body weights, absolute heart, liver, and thymus weights were significantly lower in male rats dosed at 200 mg/kg/d compared to control rat, but there were no effects on body weights and organ weights of female rats
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
- Histopathology examination revealed effects on the urogenital system of the sodium tungstate-treated rats. Changes included mild to severe basophilia of renal cortical tubules in 1 of 9 and 10 of 10 males and 1 of 10 and 8 of 10 females in 2 high-dose
groups (125 and 200 mg/kg/d), respectively.
- Histopathological analysis of epididymides of rats dosed with sodium tungstate showed considerable effects in the high-dose group, Intraluminal cellular debris with and without hypospermia was noted in the epididymides of 3 of 10 males in the 200 mg/kg/d dose group. The lesion was not observed in the 10, 75, and 125 mg/kg/d dose groups.
- Histologic changes were also noted in the glandular stomach of males and females in high dosage groups. The changes included subacute inflammation consisting primarily of EOSs admixed with fewer mononuclear cells observed throughout the submucosa of 5 of 9, 4 of 10 males, and 8 of 10, 9 of 10 females in, 125 and 200 mg/kg/d dosage groups, respectively. Goblet cell metaplasia was also observed in the mucosa of the glandular stomach 8 of 9, 8 of 10 males and 8 of 10, 10 of 10
females of 125 and 200 mg/kg/d dosage groups, respectively. The gastric histologic findings in the lower dosed group were negative when compared to 2 high-dose groups
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Key result
Dose descriptor:
BMDL10
Effect level:
102 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
175 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
food consumption and compound intake
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
body weight and weight gain
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
clinical signs
haematology
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
yes
Conclusions:
Subchronic toxicity of sodium tungstate was assessed in in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by daily oral gavage of 0, 10, 75, 125, or 200 mg/kg/d for 90 days. There was a significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain in males at 200 mg/kg/d from days 77 to 90; however, there was no effect in food consumption and body weights in females. There were no changes in the hematological and clinical parameters studied. Histopathological changes were seen in kidney of male and female and epididymis of male rats. Histopathological changes were observed in the kidneys of male and female rats dosed at 125 or 200 mg/k/d consisting of mild to severe cortical tubule basophilia in 2 high-dose groups. Histological changes in epididymides included intraluminal hypospermia with cell debris in the 200 mg/kg/d dosed male rats. Histopathological changes were observed in the glandular stomach including inflammation and metaplasia in the high-dose groups (125 or 200 mg/kg/d) of both sexes of rats. Based on histopathology effects seen in the kidneys, the lowest observable adverse effect level was 125 mg/kg/d and the no observable adverse effect level was 75 mg/kg/d in both sexes of rats for oral subchronic toxicity.
Executive summary:

No oral repeated dose toxicity data of sufficient quality are available for tungsten trioxide (target substance). However, oral repeated dose toxicity data are available for sodium tungstate (source substance), which will be used for reading across. Due to lower water solubility and lower toxicity for the target substance compared to the source substance, the resulting read across from the source substance to the target substance is appropriate as a conservative estimate of potential toxicity for this endpoint. In addition, read across is appropriate because the classification and labelling is more protective for the source substance than the target substance, the PBT/vPvB profile is the same, and the dose descriptors are, or are expected to be, lower for the source substance. For more details, refer to the read-across category approach included in the Category section of this IUCLID submission and/or as an Annex in the CSR.

Reason / purpose:
read-across: supporting information

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2009

Materials and methods

Test guidelineopen allclose all
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EPA OTS 798.2650 (90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 408 (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Sodium tungstate dihydrate (Tungstic acid sodium salt dihydrate, CAS# 10213-10-2) purchased from Sigma-Aldrich
- Physical state: powder
- Analytical purity: 99% pure

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Purchased from Charles River Laboratories, Raleigh, NC
- Age at study initiation: 5 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: about 150 grams when received 199-230 grams at the start of testing)
- Housing: individually housed in polycarbonate cages
- Diet: Harlan Teklad, 8728C Certified Rodent Diet, ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 1 week


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 17-26 (64-79 degrees F)
- Humidity (%): 30-70
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): The light/dark cycle was a 12-hour interval


IN-LIFE DATES: From: no data To: no data

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
PREPARATION OF DOSING SOLUTIONS: Sodium tungstate dihydrate was solubilized with deionized (DI) water to produce four dosing solutions of 200, 125, 75, and 10 mg Na2WO4 /mL. This was achieved by placing 224.5, 140.35, 84.20, and 11.23 grams of sodium tungstate dihydrate into 1000 mL volumetric flasks and adding DI water to obtain 1000 mL of solution. Aliquots of test solutions were analyzed for purity and stability by the Aberdeen Test Center and found to be consistent for the purity and stable during the period of studies.

A 90-day stability study on a single suspension of sodium tungstate in DI water was initiated prior to beginning the ALD. This solution was sampled and analyzed weekly for a period of approximately 90 calendar days to ensure that the dosing solutions would remain stable throughout the 90-day study.

Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
Each batch of solutions that was mixed was sampled and analyzed to verify the concentrations prior to use.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
90 days (91 calendar days)
Frequency of treatment:
Tungstate or control solutions were administered daily (7 days per week, total of 90 doses)
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Dose / conc.:
10 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Dose / conc.:
200 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10 animals/sex/dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: Based on previous studies;
- Rationale for animal assignment: Randomly distributed using the LABCAT Randomization Program into four treatment groups and one control group.
Positive control:
no

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule:
- Cage side observations included but were not limited to changes in skin and fur, eyes, mucous membranes, occurrence of secretions and excretions, and autonomic activity (e.g., lacrimation, piloerection, pupil size, unusual respiratory pattern). Changes in gait, posture and response to handling, as well as the presence of clonic or tonic movements, stereotypes (e.g. excessive grooming, repetitive circling) or bizarre behavior (e.g., self-mutilation, walking backwards), were recorded. Records indicated time of onset, degree, and duration of all signs. A scoring system for observations explicitly defined by the USACHPPM Toxicity Evaluation Program was used.

- Animals were observed daily for toxic signs.


DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: A careful clinical examination was made for each animal prior to initiation of treatment and once weekly during treatment of animals.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: recorded on days -3, -1, 0 (first day of dosing), 7, and weekly thereafter.


FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Compound intake calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: Yes


FOOD EFFICIENCY:
- Body weight gain in kg/food consumption in kg per unit time X 100 calculated as time-weighted averages from the consumption and body weight gain data: No


WATER CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if drinking water study): No


OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Ophthalmic examinations were performed prior to the scheduled start of the 90-day study and within a week of the scheduled necropsies.
- Dose groups that were examined: performed on all control and treated animals


HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: At the end of the 90 days, before the rats were euthanized
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: No data
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- Parameters examined include white blood cell count (WBC), WBC differential (% neutrophils (NEU %N), % lymphocytes (LYM %L), % monocytes (MONO %M), % eosinophils (EOS %E), % basophils (BASO %B), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelets (PLT), and mean platelet volume (MPV). Blood Coagulation, average prothombin time (AVG PT) and average activated prothombin time (AVG APTT) were analyzed by using MCA 210 Microsample Coagulation Analyzer™ (BioData Corporation, Horsham, Pennsylvania).


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: At the end of the 90 days, before the rats were euthanized
- Animals fasted: No data
- How many animals: all animals
- The clinical chemistry analytes included: alkaline phosphatase (ALK P), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium (Ca), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine kinase (CK), creatinine (CREA), glucose (non-fasting) (GLU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), total protein (TP), triglycerides (TRIG), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl).


URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine: Performed on 8 out of 10 animals from all dose groups (including negative control) within 2 weeks of the final (90-day) necropsies
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: No data
- Animals fasted: No data
- Urinalysis was conducted by measuring volume, color, appearance, pH, specific gravity, glucose, bilirubin, urobilinogen, ketone, blood, protein, nitrite, and leukocytes.


NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: No


OTHER: The brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, adrenals, thymus, epididymides/uterus, and testes/ovaries were removed and weighed for absolute organ weights, organ-to-body weight ratios, and organ-to-brain weight ratios.
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes; The tissues harvested for histopathological evaluation included the brain, pituitary, thyroid w/ parathyroid, thymus, lungs, trachea, heart, bone marrow, salivary gland, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, uterus, aorta, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon, urinary bladder, lymph node, peripheral nerve, thigh musculature, eye, spinal cord (three levels), and exorbital lachrymal gland.

Following fixation, complete tissues from the control, 125 and 200 mg/kg/day group males and females were trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 microns, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined via routine light microscopy. Additionally, kidney sections from all animals in the 10 and 75 mg/kg/day dosage groups and all gross lesions were similarly processed. The microscopic sections were of adequate size and quality to allow critical histologic evaluation.
Statistics:
Data from each treatment group were statistically compared to controls using a two-factor ANOVA with sex and dose and sex by dose interaction. When significance was observed, the data were further analyzed using a Dunnett's test to compare the doses to the 0 mg/kg dose. A one-factor ANOVA for each sex was used to see dose differences. Again, a Dunnett's test was used to compare the doses to the control. If a normality test failed, the data were subjected to a log transformation prior to performing ANOVA. If the normality test failed again after the data were transformed, ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis test) was performed. Statistical significance was defined at the p< 0.05 level.

Food consumption, body weights, organ-to-brain weight ratios and organ-to-body weight ratios were compared among dosage groups and controls using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and, if statistical significance was found, Dunnett's post hoc test was used to compare dosage groups to the control group. The parameters were collected with the LABCAT system and statistically analyzed using Sigma-Stat (Sigma-Stat, Jandel Scientific, Corte Madera, CA). Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis data were entered into Sigma-Stat using a one- way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test to compare dosage groups to the control group. Where a normality test had failed after the data had been log transformed, an ANOVA on ranks was performed.

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
not examined
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
not examined
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
effects observed, treatment-related
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
not examined
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
The rats showed no overt toxic or clinical signs during the study


BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
Significant differences between males and females in overall mean body weights were observed for all days except Day 0. No significant differences between treatment groups (10, 75, 125 and 200 mg/kg/day) in mean body weight were observed for females. However, significant treatment group differences in mean body weight were observed for males on Days 70, 77, 84 and 90. The cntrol group had significantly different mean body weights from the 200 mg/kg group on Days 77, 84 and 90. The 10 mg/kg group had significantly different mean body weights from the 200 mg/kg group on Days 70, 77, 84 and 90. The 75 mg/kg group had significantly different mean body weight from the 200 mg/kg group on Day 77.

The decrease seen was primarily due to significant decreases in liver, heart, testes and epididymis weights of male animals given 200 mg/kg sodium tungstate. This was strongly correlated with a decrease in food consumption in these animals.


FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE (if feeding study)
The decrease in body weight was strongly correlated with a decrease in food consumption in these animals.

OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION
All observations prior to study initiation were within normal limits. Observations taken within a week of the scheduled necropsies revealed no abnormalities.


HAEMATOLOGY
No significant dose related adverse alterations were observed for hematological parameters for any treatment group.

Significant differences between sexes were observed for WBC, basophils, RBC, MCV, MCH, and RDW. For MCV, MCH and RDW, the females had greater values than the males and for WBC, basophils and RBC the males had greater values than the female. No significant sex by dose interactions or dose group differences were observed.


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
Since the males and females showed some significant differences in clinical chemistries and there were also significant sex by dose interactions, comparison of dose groups was conducted for males and females separately. For males only, a significant difference between dose groups was observed for creatinine, the 75 mg/kg dose group (0.32±0.02 mg/dL) was significantly less than the 200 mg/kg dose group (0.40±0.02 mg/dL). For females only, significant differences between dose groups were observed for glucose, sodium and chloride. The mean glucose for the 75 mg/kg group (188.8±5.09 mg/dL) was significantly greater than the control group (161.3±6.58 mg/dL). This was also greater than the biological range of 120-186 mg/dL. The mean sodium for the 10 mg/kg group (148±0.27 mmol/L) was significantly greater than the 200 mg/kg group (146±0.38 mmol/L). The mean chloride for the 125 mg/kg group (107±0.47 mmol/L) was significantly greater than the 200 mg/kg group (106±0.37 mmol/L). Sodium and chloride values for all groups, however were within the biological range of 141-148 mmol/l and 101-108 mmol/L, respectively, for Sprague-Dawley rats.

URINALYSIS
Examination of urine samples taken approximately 1 week prior to necropsy revealed no significant changes in volume, specific gravity or pH. No distinct dose-related trends were observed in glucose, bilirubin, ketone, blood, protein, urobilinogen, nitrite, or leukocytes.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
Females given 200 mg/kg had increases in kidney and spleen weight. Histopathology indicated an increase in renal tubular regeneration at this dosage level which may have been responsible for the increase in kidney weight. Most metals were excreted through renal clearance and gastrointestinal excretion. Renal effects are common with heavy metals and this finding was not unexpected.

GROSS PATHOLOGY
Individual animal necropsy observations were reviewed at the time of histologic examination. All macroscopic changes were considered to be spontaneous and/or incidental in nature and unrelated to test article exposure. All tissues evaluated showed no treatment related effects.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
Individual animal necropsy observations were reviewed at the time of histologic examination. All macroscopic changes were considered to be spontaneous and/or incidental in nature and unrelated to test article exposure.

Following fixation, complete tissues (brain, pituitary, thyroid w/parathyroid, thymus, lungs, trachea, heart, bone marrow, salivary gland, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, pancreas, gonads, uterus, aorta, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, colon, urinary bladder, lymph node, peripheral nerve, thigh musculature, eye, spinal cord (three levels), and exorbital lachrymal gland) from the control, and two high dose groups (125 and 200 mg/kg/day) males and females were trimmed, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 5 microns, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined via routine light microscopy. Additionally, kidney sections and target tissues (stomach and epididymides) from all animals in the 10 and 75 mg/kg/day dosage groups and all gross lesions were similarly processed. The microscopic sections were of adequate size and quality to allow critical histologic evaluation.

Rats dosed with sodium tungstate showed considerable histopathological changes in the kidneys of male and female rats. Mild to severe regeneration of renal cortical tubules was noted in 1/9 and 10/10 males and 1/10 and 8/10 females in the 125 and 200 mg/kg/day dosage groups, respectively. For clarity, basophilic tubular profiles bearing thickened basement membranes were diagnosed as chronic progressive nephropathy, and in all affected animals, this lesion was minimal and widely scattered throughout the cortex; incidence was similar between control and test article-treated groups, with males more commonly affected than females.

Some histologic findings were noted in the glandular stomach of males and females in all dosage groups. Subacute inflammation consisting primarily of eosinophils admixed with fewer mononuclear cells was observed throughout the submucosa of 2/10, 1/10, 5/9, 4/10 males and 0/10, 1/10, 8/10, 9/10 females in the 10, 75, 125 and 200 mg/kg/day dosage groups, respectively. Goblet cell metaplasia was also observed throughout the mucosa of the glandular stomach in 1/10, 4/10, 8/9, 8/10 males and 0/10, 4/10, 8/10, 10/10 females in the 10, 75, 125 and 200 mg/kg/day dosage groups, respectively.

Histopathologial analysis of epidydimis of male rats dosed with sodium tungstate showed considerable effects at high dose group. Cellular debris within the lumen with and without hypospermia was noted in the epididymides of 3/10 males in the 200 mg/kg/day dosage group. A single male in the 10 mg/kg/day group exhibited a similar lesion; however, the finding in this individual was minimal and unilateral, likely a spontaneous occurrence, and was considered to be unrelated to test article exposure. The lesion was not observed in 75 and 125 mg/kg/day group males.

Although tubular regeneration could be identified within the kidneys of control group animals as well as rats in the 10 and 75 mg/kg/day dosage groups, affected tubules were rare to few and minimally affected; this was considered to be consistent with spontaneous nephropathy syndrome.

Luminal cellular debris was observed in the epididymis of three rats from the 200 mg/kg group. Epididymal changes of this type are commonly encountered as rats reach sexual maturity, and were presumed to represent degenerative cells that were released from the testis. However, rats in the present study should have reached sexual maturity before the time of necropsy. It was interesting to note that two of the rats with the most pronounced epididymal luminal cell debris were found dead or moribund sacrifice rats that died on days 55 and 56, respectively, rather than the scheduled terminal necropsy on study days 90-91. The epididymis of one animal had luminal cell debris that was limited to the tail region, suggesting some transient event that resulted in release of degenerative cells from the testis or epididymis for a defined period of time. There were no identifiable testicular lesions that would explain the presence of degenerated cells in the lumen of the epididymis.

Effect levels

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Key result
Dose descriptor:
BMDL10
Effect level:
102 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
75 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic
Key result
Dose descriptor:
LOAEL
Effect level:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
histopathology: non-neoplastic

Target system / organ toxicity

Key result
Critical effects observed:
yes
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
125 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
System:
urinary
Organ:
kidney
Treatment related:
yes
Dose response relationship:
yes
Relevant for humans:
yes

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Sodium tungstate administered orally to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage for 90 consecutive days induced a number of statistically significant alterations in weights at 200 mg/kg. The administration of sodium tungstate at 125 and 200 mg/kg to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats via oral gavage for 90 consecutive days resulted in pronounced renal changes, specifically mild to severe regeneration of renal cortical tubules. The LOAEL in male and female rats = 125 mg/kg and the NOAEL in male and female rats = 75 mg/kg.
Executive summary:

No oral repeated dose toxicity data of sufficient quality are available for tungsten trioxide (target substance). However, oral repeated dose toxicity data are available for sodium tungstate (source substance), which will be used for reading across. Due to lower water solubility and lower toxicity for the target substance compared to the source substance, the resulting read across from the source substance to the target substance is appropriate as a conservative estimate of potential toxicity for this endpoint. In addition, read across is appropriate because the classification and labelling is more protective for the source substance than the target substance, the PBT/vPvB profile is the same, and the dose descriptors are, or are expected to be, lower for the source substance. For more details, refer to the read-across category approach included in the Category section of this IUCLID submission and/or as an Annex in the CSR.