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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP - Guideline study
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
1998
Reference Type:
secondary source
Title:
Triacetin CAS No. 102-76-1
Author:
OECD SIDS
Year:
2002
Bibliographic source:
SIDS Initial Assessment Report For SIAM 15
Report Date:
2002

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD Guideline 422 (Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Triacetin
- Physical state: colourless clear liquid with slight odour
- Source: Daihachi Chemical Industry. Co., Ltd.
- Analytical purity: > 98.2 %
- Lot/batch No.: N-80302
- Stability under test conditions: Stability confirmed during use by gas chromatography.

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Crj: CD(SD) IGS
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Age at study initiation: (P) 9 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: (P) Males: 371-375 g; Females: 203-240 g

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: 3 % gum arabic in purified water
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Details on mating procedure:
- M/F ratio per cage: 1/1
- Length of cohabitation: up to 7 days
- Proof of pregnancy: vaginal plug or sperm in vaginal smear
Duration of treatment / exposure:
44 days (males) from 2 weeks prior to mating.
41-48 days (females) from 14 days before mating to day 3 postpartum.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Duration of test:
Day 14 before mating to Day 3 postpartum
Doses / concentrations
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
40, 200 and 1000 mg/kg bw/day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
12
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: The general condition was observed once a day.

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: Body weight was determined on Day 0, 3, 7 and 14 of administration and once a week thereafter. For pregnant females, body weight was determined on the Day 0, 14 and 20 of gestation and on Day 0 and 4 of lactation.

FOOD CONSUMPTION: Yes
Food consumption was determined on the same day when body weight was measured.

HISTOPATHOLOGY / ORGAN WEIGHTS
Microscopic: all animals in control and 1,000 mg/kg bw group, and unfertilized animals in other groups: brain, spinal cord, pituitary gland, eyeball, thyroid gland (including parathyroid gland), thymus, heart, trachea, lung, liver, kidney, adrenal, spleen, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, urinary bladder, bone marrow, sciatic nerve, lymph node, testes, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, ovary, uterus, vagina, mammary gland and any organs, which might be expected to have histopathological changes and thymus and lung of dead animals.
Organ weight: for both sexes, brain, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, adrenal, thymus, and in addition for males, testes and epididymis.

OTHER:
Haematology and biochemistry for males conducted only at time of necropsy after 44 days of exposure (for further details refer to 7.5.1 Repeated dose toxicity).

Ovaries and uterine content:
- Number of corpora lutea: Yes
- Number of implantations: Yes

Fetal examinations:
Numbers of offspring or live offspring, the sex ratio, the live birth index, the viability index and body weights, external features, clinical signs and necropsy.
Gross necropsy consisted of external and internal examination.
Statistics:
Regarding quantitative data (body weight, gain of body weight, food consumption, organ weight, haematology, clinical chemistry, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites and total number of offspring), Bartlett test was used. In case of equal variance and unequal variance, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test was applied, respectively. If there was a significant difference, Dunnett test or Dunnett multiple-comparison was used. For day of conceiving, number of estrus, gestation length, implantation index, delivery index, viability index at Day 0 and Day 4, Bartlett test and Kruskal-Wallis test was used. If a significant difference was found, Dunnett multi-comparison test was applied. For histopathology findings, Chi-square was used. If a significant difference was observed, Chi-square of Armitage test was used between control and administration group. Regarding copulation index, fertility index, gestation index and sex ratio of offspring was tested with Fisher’s exact test.
Indices:
Copulation index (%): Number of copulated females/number of pairs x 100
Fertility Index (%): Number of pregnant females/numer of copulated females x 100
Gestation index (%): Number of pregnant animals delivered live offspring/ numer of pregnant animals x 100
Delivery index (%) and implantation index (%) were given.
The gestation index, gestation length, parturition and maternal behavior. Effects at gross pathology and microscopic evaluation of the reproductive organs.

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

Maternal developmental toxicity

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No dose-related changes in general clinical signs. One male at 1000 mg/kg bw/day was dead 32 days after the administration started.

BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
For both sexes, no statistically significant difference from controls was observed in body weight and body weight gain during administration period. For both sexes, no statistically significant difference from controls was observed in food consumption during administration period.

ORGAN WEIGHTS (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No dose-related changes in organ weight were observed.

GROSS PATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No changes in gross pathology in both sexes were observed.

HISTOPATHOLOGY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Tissue pathology revealed no alteration of tissues even in the highest dose groups for both sexes.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

open allclose all
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 1 000 mg/kg bw/day
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity

Results (fetuses)

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
On examination of neonates, there were no significant differences in numbers of offspring or live offspring, the sex ratio, the live birth index, the viability index or body weights. No abnormal findings ascribable to the compound were found for external features, clinical signs or necropsy of the offspring. One dead offspring showed pyelectasis at dosing of 40 mg/kg bw/day.

Fetal abnormalities

Abnormalities:
not specified

Overall developmental toxicity

Developmental effects observed:
not specified

Any other information on results incl. tables

Table 1. Delivery data (P).

Parameter

[mean]

Group 1

0 mg/kg bw

Group 2

40 mg/kg bw

Group 3

200 mg/kg bw

Group 4

1000 mg/kg bw

Number of corpora lutea

16.6

16.3

16.3

16.8

Number of Implantations sites

15.3

16.0

14.7

15.8

Total number of offsping

14.4

15.3

14.3

14.6

Implantation Index (%)

90.15

98.17

89.49

93.84

Delivery Index (%)

94.83

95.11

90.17

92.62

Gestation Index (%)

100

100

91.7

100

Table 2. Litter size and viability index (F1).

Parameter

Group 1

0 mg/kg bw

Group 2

40 mg/kg bw

Group 3

200 mg/kg bw

Group 4

1000 mg/kg bw

Total number of offspring at birth

14.4

15.3

15.6

14.6

Total number of live offspring at birth

14.2

15.3

15.5

14.6

Number of live offspring on Day 4

14.1

14.8

15.2

14.5

Viability index (%)

Day 0

Day 4

 

98.71

99.38

 

100

97.17

 

98.86

98.3

 

100

99.41

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The test substance had no effect on intrauterine development.