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Toxicological information

Epidemiological data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
epidemiological data
Type of information:
other: human data
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
other: reliable report, however not rated according to Klimish
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Well reported cohort study, but no exposure levels available.
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Mortality among pulp and paper workers.
Author:
Milham, S.; Demers, R.Y.
Year:
1984
Bibliographic source:
J. Occup. Med. 26, 844-846

Materials and methods

Study type:
cohort study (retrospective)
Endpoint addressed:
carcinogenicity
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline available
Principles of method if other than guideline:
A proportionate mortality study among pulp and paper workers in the United States and Canada is reported. Copies of the death listings in the Pulp and Paper Mill Workers' Journal were obtained for the years 1935 through 1963. Death records were requested from various states and Canadian provinces. The final record for each worker contained case number, name, union local number, state, year of death, age at death, cause of death and mill type. Expected numbers of lymphosarcoma deaths before 1950 and small-bowl cancer were estimated using New York State cancer mortality data and an age- and year-of-death-specific proportionate mortality model. Canadian deaths were treated as if they were U.S. deaths. The analysis was based on 2113 death records (79% of the original death notices).
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
No data

Method

Type of population:
occupational
Ethical approval:
not specified
Details on study design:
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
- Type: Record review
- Details: Copies of the death listings in the Pulp and Paper Mill Workers' Journal were obtained for the years 1935 through 1963. Death records were requested from various states and Canadian provinces. The final record for each worker contained case number, name, union local number, state, year of death, age at death, cause of death and mill type. Cause of death was coded bythe Washington State nosologist to the eight "International Classification of Diseases (ICDA). Monson's PMR program was employed for analysis of the data. Expected numbers of lymphosarcoma deaths before 1950 and small-bowl cancer were estimated using New York State cancer mortality data and an age- and year-of-death-specific proportionate mortality model. Canadian deaths were treated as if they were U.S. deaths. The analysis was based on 2113 death records (79% of the original death notices).

STUDY PERIOD: deaths between 1935 and 1963 were evaluated

SETTING: Pulp and Paper Mills

STUDY POPULATION
- Total population (Total no. of persons in cohort from which the subjects were drawn): a total of 2,689 death notices were abstracted from the journals published between 1935 and 1964
- Total number of subjects participating in study: The analysis was based on 2113 death records (79% of the original death notices).
- Sex/age/race: Males, North Americans

Exposure assessment:
not specified
Details on exposure:
no data

Results and discussion

Results:
FINDINGS
- Higher proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for lymphosarcoma (statistically significant) and kidney, pancreatic and rectal cancers were associated with jobs in the sulphite process.
- A statistically significant excess of mortality due to gastric cancer was seen among men with both sulphite and sulphate pulping.
- Hodgkin´s disease deaths occurred primarily in sulphate (Kraft) process workers.

Confounding factors:
possibility of exposure to sulphur dioxide, asbetos and so on
Strengths and weaknesses:
no exposure level could be derived

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Kidney, pancreatic and rectal cancers and lymphosarcoma were found in workers in the sulphite process. Gastric cancer was seen among men with both sulphite and sulphate pulping. This study supports the previous findings of excesses of certain cancers among paper and pulp workers.