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Ecotoxicological information

Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods

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Reference
Endpoint:
toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods: long-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
weight of evidence
Study period:
1992
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: non-GLP published study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 207 (Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests)
GLP compliance:
no
Specific details on test material used for the study:
Calcium difluoride and other fluoride salts.
Analytical monitoring:
not specified
Details on sampling:
No details.
Vehicle:
no
Details on preparation and application of test substrate:
4 fluorides, among which CaF2, were applied into the soil in sublethal concentrations.
Test organisms (species):
Eisenia fetida
Details on test organisms:
No further details on test organism.
Study type:
laboratory study
Substrate type:
not specified
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
22 wk
Post exposure observation period:
No post exposure observation period.
Test temperature:
Not stated
pH:
Not stated
Moisture:
Not stated
Details on test conditions:
No further details given.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
nominal
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1 200 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: fluoride ion F-
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Sodium fluoride
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
750 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
other: fluoride ion F-
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: Potassium fluoride
Duration:
22 wk
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
16 000 mg/kg soil dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Remarks:
CaF2
Basis for effect:
growth
Remarks on result:
other: No impact shown on growth at highest dose
Details on results:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced growth of E. fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The maturity was delayed through higher concentrations of NaF and KF in the substrate. Most cocoons were found in the experiment with the sodium salt of fluoro acetic acid. Small concentrations of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride reduced it. Only sodium fluoride reduced the number of hatchlings per cocoon significantly. At the end of the test, all worms from the variants with sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and calcium fluoride had a significant higher fluoride concentration.
Results with reference substance (positive control):
Not relevant
Reported statistics and error estimates:
No reported statistics and error estimates.

At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E.fetida significantly. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride. Calcium fluoride had no effect.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
not applicable
Conclusions:
In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E.fetida significantly. Effects on the maturity and fertility of the earthworms was also noted in the presence of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride. Calcium fluoride did not have an effect.
Executive summary:

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investiated over a period of 22 weeks. At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced growth significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potasium fluoride.

No data is available on the effects of hydrogen fluoride on the growth, maturity and and fertility of the earthworm. However, in a terrestial environment the submission substance exists predominantly as fluoride ions. Therefore the results above are a good indication of the behaviour of hydrogen fluoride in the terrestial environment.

Description of key information

Calcium fluoride was found to have no effect on Eisenia fetida

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Long-term EC10, LC10 or NOEC for soil macroorganisms:
16 000 mg/kg soil dw

Additional information

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investigated over a period of 22 weeks. In higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced growth of E.fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride (Vogel & Ottow, 1992).