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Ecotoxicological information

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

Aquatic toxicity

Acute toxicity to fish

The acute toxicity of calcium fluoride was investigated in Tinca vulgaris. The reported LC100 value of 30000 mg/L exceeds the water solubility of the test material (Simonin & Pierron, 1937). Loeb & Kelly (1963) investigated the toxicity of a large number of substances in the carp by oral administration (force feeding). No deaths occurred following the administration of a single oral dose of calcium fluoride to carp at a level equivalent to 324 -431 mg/kg bw. Calcium fluoride was found to be of low acute oral toxicity to the carp (Cyprinus carpio) under the conditions of this study.

A number of studies have been performed with the water-soluble salt, sodium fluoride. LC50 values of 107.5, 92.4, 118.5, 105.1, 64.1 ppm at 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 h respectively are reported for rainbow trout (Camargo & Tarazona, 1991). The same authors report LC50 value for brown trout of 164.5, 135.6, 118.5, 105.1 and 97.5 ppm after 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 h respectively. The EU RAR for hydrogen fluoride reports additional LC50 values of 299 mg/L (48h in Leuciscus idus); 51 mg/L in (96h in Onchorynkus mykiss) and 340 mg/L (96h in Gasterosteus aculeatus). The RIVM Integrated Criteria Document reports additional data, with LC50 values ranging from 128 -460 mg/L (Sloof et al,1988). The RIVM document also reports LC50 values of >100 mg/L (the limit of solubility) for sodium fluoride in seawater.

Long-term toxicity to fish

No studies are available for calcium fluoride. In a 21 day test in Oncorhynchus mykiss performed with sodium fluoride, an LC5 value of 4 mg/L was reported (actual concentration). This value is considered to be equivalent to the NOEC for mortality. The test was conducted in very soft (12 mg CaCO3/L) natural water with daily renewal of the test water.

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

No studies are available for calcium fluoride, however a number of non-guideline studies performed with sodium fluoride are available.

Camargo & Tarazona (1991) report that benthic larvae are sensitive to the concentration of fluoride, with EC50 values ranging from 26 -48 mg/L (actual concentration); however the study was performed in soft water. The EU RAR reviews and summarises the available data on short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates. The reported EC50 values for Daphnia sp. range from 97-352 mg/L and are based on nominal concentrations; EC50 values of 10.5 -39 mg/L are reported for marine invertebrates. The ICD summarises the available data on the short-term toxicity of sodium fluoride to aquatic invertebrates and reports EC50 values of 109 -340 mg/L; EC50 values of 30 -500 mg/L are reported for marine invertebrates.

Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

No studies are available for calcium fluoride, however a number of (largely non-guideline) published studies with sodium fluoride are reviewed in the EU RAR and ICD. The EU RAR summarises the effects of two reproductive studies of sodium fluoride onDaphnia magna. The two studies report NOEC values of 3.7 and 14.1 mg/L, with an arithmetic mean of 8.9 mg/L. The ICD reports additional EC50 values in the range of 10 - 48 mg/L.

Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria

No studies are available for calcium fluoride. However, the EU RAR reviews and summarises the available data on the toxicity of sodium fluoride to freshwater and marine algae species. The EC50 values for freshwater algae are reported to range from 43 to 122 mg/L (as fluoride ion, F-). For marine algae the EC50 was 81 mg/L in a single study with Skeletonema costatum. NOEC values of 50 -249 mg/L and 50 -200 mg/L are reported for freshwater and marine algae, respectively.

Toxicity to microorganisms

No data are available for calcium fluoride. The EU RAR summarises and reviews the available data on the toxicity of fluorides to aquatic microorganisms; NOEC values of between 7.1 -226 mg/L are reported. A guideline-compliant study noted in the EU RAR reports a NOEC of 510 mg/L.