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Toxicity to soil macro-organisms

The toxicity of various fluoride compounds to Eisenia fetida was investigated over a period of 22 weeks. At higher concentrations sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride and the sodium salt of fluoroacetic acid reduced the growth of E. fetida significantly. Calcium fluoride had no effect. The rate of maturity of the earthworms was also significantly reduced when sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride was used. The number of hatchlings was reduced in the presence of sodium fluoride, while the number of cocoons was reduced in the presence of a low concentration of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride (Vogel & Ottow, 1992). The NOEC corresponds to 1512 mg/kg dw (which is above the concentration recommended as maximum concentration for an OECD 222).

Toxicity to terrestrial arthropods

The effects of fluoride concentration were investigated on the numbers of Porcellio scaber in leaf litter. Leaf litter was collected from eight sites at various distances away from an aluminium reduction plant. When F- was added in the form of NaF to the litter, a significant increase in mortality was observed only in treatments exceeding 1008 mg F-/kg (Beyer et al, 1987).

Toxicity to terrestrial plants

The lowest NOEC was observed in a 45 day study with Raphanus sativus. The NOEC corresponds to 28.5 mg/kg dw. This value will be used for the risk assessment.

On the basis of a large number of fumigation experiments with plants (ornamental crops, fruit crops and conifers) exposed to HF, a relationship was derived between the NOEC and exposure time (all plant species). NOEC values were calculated for highly sensitive, sensitive and slightly sensitive plant species. For the exposure via the air of greenhouses (fumigation) a NOEC values of between 0.2 -7.5 mg/m3 HF are reported for plant species (EU RAR, 2001).

Toxicity to soil micro-organisms

The lowest NOEC for soil micro-organisms is the NOEC corresponding to 133.6 mg/kg dw.