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Mitchell et al., Methylamine in human urine, Clinica Chimica Acta 312 (2001) 107–114

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Mitchell et al. investigated in 2001 the excretion of MMA after ingestion of different dietary sources. Methylamine is the simplest aliphatic amine found in human urine. The average daily output of methylamine was 11.00 ±8.17 mg (12.73 ±9.35 male; 9.27 ± 6.35 female) with a range of values spreading from 1.68 to 62.30 mg. Dietary studies suggested that certain fish and seafoods (clam, crab, haddock, halibut, octopus, tuna) and fruit and vegetables (pear, peas, tomato) may add to this urinary output. Ingestion of creatinine also increased urinary methylamine levels.Chemical and dietary precursor studies indicated that there was no major exogenous source of this amine and suggested that the origin of the majority of human urinary methylamine is endogenous with only subtle contributions from the diet. Additionally pretreatment with neomycin sulfate showed that endogenous bacterial metabolism does not contribute to a significant production and urinary excretion of methylamine.