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Diss Factsheets

Guidance on Safe Use

Guidance on Safe Use

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Administrative data

First-aid measures

Description of first aid measures

EYE CONTACT: Ensure that contact lenses are removed before rinsing eyes. Separate eyelids, wash the eyes thoroughly with water (15 min). Seek medical attention if irritation persists

INHALATION:  Move person to fresh air. Seek medical attention.

SKIN CONTACT: Remove any contaminated clothing. Wash skin with water and soap immediately and rinse thoroughly.  Seek medical attention if irritation persists.

INGESTION: Rinse mouth with water. If swallowed, induce vomiting under medical supervision.

Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed

Typical clinical manifestations of lead poisoning include weakness, irritability, asthenia, nausea, abdominal pain with constipation, and anaemia.

Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatments needed

Symptoms of poisoning may occur after several hours; therefore medical observation for at least 48 hours after the accident is recommended.

Fire-fighting measures

Extinguishing media

The product itself does not burn. Use extinguishing measures that are appropriate to local circumstances and the surrounding environment. Suitable extinguishing agents: Dry chemical or sand.

Extinguishers that must not be used for safety reasons: high volume water jet. Never use water near or on molten metal.

Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture

May give off toxic fumes in a fire, including heavy metal fumes and oxides of sulphur.

Advice for fire fighters

Self-contained breathing apparatus with full-face piece.

Accidental release measures

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Do not inhale fumes or dust. Use personal protective equipment. Wear suitable clothing, breathing protection and face protection. Ensure adequate ventilation.

Restrict the area to those persons wearing respiratory protection. Do not allow unprotected people into the area until cleanup has been completed.

Environmental precautions

Take precautions to ensure product does not contaminate the ground, water courses, or enter the drainage system.

Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Avoid generation of dust. Vacuum or sweep up into containers marked and suitable for disposal as hazardous waste. Wash spillage area after cleanup with large amounts of water.

Handling and storage

Precautions for safe handling

Ensure there is exhaust ventilation of the area. Avoid breathing dust, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

Handle lead material in such a way, that distribution of dust is minimized. Use proper industrial hygiene. Do not inhale fumes or dust. Thorough dedusting. Ensure good ventilation/extraction at the workplace. Open and handle receptable with care.

Procedural and control technologies are used to minimise emission and any resulting exposure (when handling the substance, during cleaning and maintenance works and in case of accident). All procedures are well documented and supervised by the site operator.

Only properly trained and authorised personnel may handle the substance.

Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

No special precautions. Store in cool, dry and well-ventilated place.

Specific end uses(s)

Not applicable. This product is an intermediate in the production of Pb and Sn metal.

Transport information

Land transport (UN RTDG/ADR/RID)

UN number:
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
TOXIC SOLID, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (Lead, antimonial dross)
Chemical name:
Lead, antimonial, dross
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all

Inland waterway transport (UN RTDG/ADN(R))

UN number:
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
TOXIC SOLID, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (Lead, antimonial, dross)
Chemical name:
Lead, antimonial, dross
Remarksopen allclose all

Marine transport (UN RTDG/IMDG)

UN number:
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
TOXIC SOLID, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (Lead, antimonial, dross)
Chemical name:
Lead, antimonial, dross
Marine pollutant
Remarksopen allclose all

Air transport (UN RTDG/ICAO/IATA)

UN number:
Shipping information
Proper shipping name and description:
TOXIC SOLID, INORGANIC, N.O.S. (Lead, antimonial, dross)
Remarksopen allclose all
SpecialProvisionsopen allclose all

Exposure controls / personal protection

Control parameters

Human Toxicity values

OELs - Lead and inorganic compounds (as Pb):

      Limit values – 8 hours (mg/m³)       Limit values – short term (mg/m³)

EU                     0.15       

United Kingdom            0.15       

Austria             0.1 inhalable aerosol                 0.4 inhalable aerosol

Belgium                     0.15       

Denmark             0.05 inhalable aerosol                0.10 inhalable aerosol

France             0.1 inhalable aerosol       

Germany (AGS)     0.1 inhalable aerosol       

Hungary            0.15 inhalable aerosol                 0.05 respirable aerosol

                              0.60 inhalable aerosol                  0.2 respirable aerosol

Italy           0.15 inhalable aerosol       

Poland                0.05       

Spain           0.15 inhalable aerosol       

Sweden           0.1 inhalable aerosol                    0.15 respirable aerosol       

Switzerland           0.1 inhalable aerosol               0.8 inhalable aerosol

Biological action levels, inorganic lead[Registrant to add other national biological action levels as required.]

EU                                   70 µg/dL

UK                                   60 µg/dL

Germany (suspended)       40 µg/dL

                                                     10 µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

France                                  40 µg/dL

                                                    30 µg/dL µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

Spain                                 70 µg/dL

Italy                                 60 µg/dL

                                                    40 µg/dL (for woman of reproductive capacity)

Denmark                                 20 µg/dL

DN(M)ELs for workers:

Exposure pattern       Route                           Descriptors                    DNEL/DMEL (appropriate unit)       Most sensitive endpoint

Acute - systemic effects       Dermal (mg/kg bw /day)       NA                       NA                                                                 NA

                                 Inhalation (mg/m3)       NA                       NA                                                                 NA

Acute - local effects       Dermal (mg/cm2)       NA                       NA                                                                 NA

                                 Inhalation (mg/m3)       NA                       NA                                                                 NA

Long-term - systemic effects       Systemic (μg lead /dL blood)       NOAEL = 40 μg/dL         40 μg/dL

                                                                                                          NOAEL = 10 μg/dL         10 μg/dL                        Adult neurological function

Developmental effect on foetus of pregnant women

Long-term – local effects       Dermal (mg/cm2)       NA       NA       NA

      Inhalation (mg/m3)       NA       NA       NA

Ecological toxicity values

The following Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were used to determine the environmental risk of lead metal (lead metal powder (particle diameter < 1mm)):

Exposure pattern       Route       Descriptor       PNEC

Long-term – chronic effects       Freshwater       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       3.1 μg Pb/L (dissolved)

Long-term- chronic effects       Marine       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       3.5 μg Pb/L (dissolved)

Long-term – chronic effects       Freshwater Sediment       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       174.0 mg Pb/kg dw1

41.0 mg Pb/kg dw2

Long-term – chronic effects       Marine Sediment       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       164.0 mg Pb/kg dw

Long-term – chronic effects       Soil       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       212.0 mg Pb/kg dw

Long-term – chronic effects       STP (Sewage Treatment Plant)       PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration)       0.1 mg Pb/L

1: without bioavailability correction; 2: with bioavailability correction

Guidance on how to comply with these PNECs is given in the attached Exposure Scenarios.

Exposure controls

Organisational measures

Personal Hygiene: Ensure workers follow simple hygiene rules (e.g. do not bite nails and keep them cut short, avoid touching or scratching face with dirty hands or gloves); Ensure workers do not wipe away sweat with hands or arms; Ensure workers use disposable tissues rather than a handkerchief; Prohibit drinking, eating and smoking in production areas, or access to eating and non-production areas in working clothes; Ensure workers wash hands, arms, faces and mouths (but preferably shower) and change into clean clothing before entering eating areas; For high exposure workplaces, separate rooms for cleaning hands, removal of clothes, showers and clean clothes may be necessary; Ensure workers handle dirty working clothes with care; Allow no personal belongings to be taken into production areas, or items that have been used in production areas to be taken home. Ensure general shop cleanliness is maintained by frequent washing/vacuuming. Clean every workplace at the end of every shift.

Blood lead monitoring: Set in place a certified monitoring regime which covers all site activities; Define a policy for submitting workers to regular blood lead monitoring, including increased frequency for workers undertaking high-risk jobs and workers with elevated blood lead levels; Ensure all workers have a blood test prior to working on site. Set an “action level” that is typically 5 µg/dL below the exposure limit deemed to be safe. If the action level is exceeded, appropriate measures are to be taken, to prevent further increases in blood lead. If the safe threshold  is exceeded, continue or begin ban on overtime, ensure strict hygiene procedures are followed, undertake detailed inspections to ensure correct use of personal protective equipment, undertake detailed inspections to ensure recommended workplace procedures are followed, move employee to workplace where exposure is expected to be lower or remove from lead environment altogether, further increase blood lead sampling frequency, and continue frequent sampling until results are below the first action level.

Personal Protection Equipment

Respiratory protection: Suitable respiratory protective device recommended recommended if work activity is likely to result in formation of lead fumes, vapours or dust. In case of brief or low level exposure use dust mask or half mask with particle filter P2. Assess the need to wear respiratory protective equipment in production areas. Consider use effective masks accompanied by a compliance policy (ensure proper shaving; ensure workers do not remove RPE in production areas in order to communicate). Where masks are used, employ formal mask cleaning and filter changing strategies.

Hand Protection: Protective gloves. Material of gloves: Neoprene or Leather.

Eye protection: Safety glasses.

Skin protection: Wear protective work clothing. For workers in areas of significant exposure, provide sufficient working clothes to enable daily change into clean clothes. In such cases all work clothing should be cleaned by the employer on a daily basis and is not permitted to leave the work site.

Environmental Protection

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to water:

•       Chemical precipitation: used primarily to remove the metal ions

•       Sedimentation

•       Filtration: used as final clarification step

•       Electrolysis: for low metal concentration

•       Reverse osmosis: extensively used for the removal of dissolved metals

•       Ion exchange: final cleaning step in the removal of heavy metal from process wastewater

One or more of the following measures may if necessary be taken to reduce emissions to air:

•       Electrostatic precipitators using wide electrode spacing: Wet electrostatic precipitators:

•       Cyclones, but as primary collector Fabric or bag filters: high efficiency in controlling fine particulate (melting): achieve emission values Membrane filtration techniques can achieve

•       Ceramic and metal mesh filters. PM10 particles are removed

•       Wet scrubbers

Lead compound removal from treatment works should be at least the minimum default 84% removal used in the CSR. Solid material collected from on-site treatment must be sent for metal recovery or treated as hazardous waste. Waste water treatment sludge must be recycled, incinerated or landfilled and not used as agricultural fertiliser.

Stability and reactivity


No reactive hazards known. Stable under normal conditions

Chemical stability

Expected to be stable under normal conditions of use.

Possibility of hazardous reactions

No hazardous reactions expected.

Conditions to avoid

Avoid excessive exposure to heat. Avoid exposure to moisture – keep dry.

Incompatible materials

Metals. Oxidising agents. Fluorine.

Hazardous decomposition products

No decomposition if used as directed.

Disposal considerations

Product recommendation:Waste from handling the product is classified as hazardous waste. Collect spillage of metals and oxides in separate container.

Waste must be removed in accordance with national and/or regional waste legislation.

European waste catalogue:

06 04 05, 10 04 05