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Toxicological information

Skin sensitisation

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Administrative data

skin sensitisation
in vivo
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable, well-documented publication which meets basic scientific principles

Data source

Reference Type:

Materials and methods

Test guideline
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Various methods tested
GLP compliance:
not specified
Type of study:
other: Polak method / Split adjuvant method / Maximization method / Epicutaneous methods

Test material

Constituent 1
Chemical structure
Reference substance name:
EC Number:
EC Name:
Cas Number:
Molecular formula:
methyl 2-cyanoacrylate
Test material form:
other: emulsion or solution
Details on test material:
Different acrylic compounds have been tested in this study:

In vivo test system

Test animals

guinea pig
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:

Outbred Hartley strain guinea-pigs of either sex weighing 400-500 g were used. The animals were from stocks bred either at the Royal College of Surgeons or from David Hall, Newchurch, Staffordshire, England. The animals were fed a Labsure RGP diet (F. Dixon & Son, Ware, Hertfordshire) liberally supplemented with cabbage and hay.

Results and discussion

Positive control results:
no data

Any other information on results incl. tables


Previous work has shown that, in our hands, the Polak method of sensitization was better than the maximization or split adjuvant methods in

inducing sensitivity to the metals nickel and zirconium. Consequently, attempts were made, using the Polak method, to sensitize guinea pigs to 21 different acrylic compounds.

Table 1 Iists the chemicals that induced contact sensitivity to a non-irritant skin test dose. As can be seen, from the time of the first positive skin test, acrylic acid, tripropylene glycol diacrylate and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) appeared to be not as strong sensitizers as the other 5 compounds. This difference could, however, be the result of using different molar concentrations.

TABLE 1: Contact skin reactions in guinea pigs immunized by the Polak method:


No. of animals

Time of first positive skin test

Acrylic acid


28 days

Methyl acrylate


7 days

Butyl acrylate


7 days

2 -ethyl hexyl acrylate


7 days

1 -6 -hexanediol diacrylate


7 days

Tripropylene glycol diacrylate


28 days

Trimethylol propane triacrylate


7 days

Pentaerythritol triacrylate


14 days

Below listed are the chemicals that, during the 3 months of the experiment. never induced a contact sensitivity skin reaction to the immunizing chemical:

Methacrylic acid

Trichloracrylic acid

Methyl methacrylate

Butyl methacrylate

2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate

Tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate

Ethoxy ethyl methacrylate

Allyl methacrylate

Triethylene glycol dimethacrylate

Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

Trimethyl propane trimethacrylate

Methyl cyanoacrylate

Butyl cyanoacrylate

Attempts were made to sensitize guinea pigs to methyl and butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate using the split adjuvant and maximization

techniques. Although the contact skin reactions were not as strong as when the animals were immunized using the Polak method, all the guinea pigs immunized by the split adjuvant method, showed positive reactions to butyl acrylate and 4 out of 6 to methyl acrylate on the first skin test.

Using the maximization method, 30% of the animals developed contact reactions to methyl acrylate on day 21. This did not increase with subsequent skin testing. Again, it was not possible to induce contact sensitivity skin reactions to methyl methacrylate using either immunization

protocol. Because of reports that the methacrylates are volatile, closed patch tests were performed on occasions, but this still did not induce positive skin reactions.

Contact reactions develop in humans due to continuous and repeated exposure to the acrylic compound through the skin. In consequence, 2

methods of epicutaneous sensitization were developed which involved repeated exposure to the chemical. The epicutaneous method A, which involved a total of 6 exposures, was not able to induce contact skin reactions even to methyl acrylate. However. epicutaneous method B induced good contact sensitivity to both trimethylol propane triacrylate and pentaerythritol triacrylate. 4 out of 6 guinea pigs were also sensitized to methyl acrylate and 3 out of 6 to butyl acrylate using this method. Again, it was not possible, in this laboratory, to induce contact reactions to methyl methacrylate even when in one experiment the animals were exposed to methyl methacrylate for 3 weeks (15 exposures) instead of 2 weeks.


A recent paper by Van der Walle el aI. (Contact Dermatitis 8, 223 -235, 1982) reports the successful induction of contact sensitivity skin reactions to methyl methacrylate in guinea pigs. Using the guinea pig maximization test and a Freund's complete adjuvant test, they induced contact reactions in 2 out of 10 and 2 out of 8 guinea pigs respectively. The reason for this difference could be that Van der Walle and his colleagues immunized each guinea pig with either 25 or 20 mg of methyl methacrylate, whereas in this study between 250 µg and 4 mg of the chemical per animal were used in the intradermal immunization procedures.

Evidently, if sufficient chemical is used for immunization, a % of guinea pigs will give contact sensitivity reactions to methyl methacrylate.

However, it does not sensitize guinea pigs as easily as do the comparable acrylate compounds.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Interpretation of results:
not sensitising
Migrated information
Methyl cyanoacrylate did not induce contact sensitivity in the respective tests.
Executive summary:


Among many different acrylic compounds, methyl cyanoacrylate and butyl cyanoacrylate were tested for their skin sensitising properties with the following methods:

- Polak method

- Split adjuvant method

- Maximization method (modified)

- Epicutaneous methods (Levene and Draize (modified))

Both, methyl cyanoacrylate and butyl cyanoacrylate were shown to not be skin sensitisers in these tests.