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Toxicological information

Developmental toxicity / teratogenicity

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
Between 28 November 2011 and 16 April 2012
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study carried out according to internationally recognised guidelines and performed according to GLP.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2013
Report Date:
2013

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD 421
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Test material form:
other: Liquid
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Patchouli Oil
- Physical state: Yellow liquid
- Analytical purity:
- Lot/batch No.: AS00068648
- Expiration date of the lot/batch: 29 June 2013
- Storage condition of test material: room temperature in the dark

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlan Laboratories U.K. Ltd., Blackthorn, Bicester, Oxon, UK
- Age at study initiation: Approximately twelve weeks old
- Weight at study initiation: Males weighed 304 to 400g, the females weighed 193 to 222g
- Fasting period before study: No data
- Housing: All animals were housed in groups of five in solid floor polypropylene cages with
stainless steel mesh lids and softwood flake bedding (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK).
During the mating phase, the animals were transferred to polypropylene grid floor cages
suspended over trays lined with absorbent paper on a one male: one female basis.
Following evidence of successful mating, the males were returned to their original cages.
Mated females were housed individually during gestation and lactation, in solid floor
polypropylene cages with stainless steel mesh lids and softwood flakes.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Rodent PMI 5002 (Certified) Ground Diet ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): Mains drinking water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: For five days during which time their health status was assessed

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 21 ± 2°C
- Humidity (%): 55 ± 15%
- Air changes (per hr): At least fifteen air changes per hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): twelve hours continuous light and twelve hours darkness

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: feed
Vehicle:
unchanged (no vehicle)
Details on exposure:
DIET PREPARATION
- Rate of preparation of diet (frequency): Dietary admixtures were therefore prepared three times during the
study, as the results of stability and homogeneity tests showed the dietary admixtures to be stable for a
period of at least eight days at room temperature and up to six weeks when stored at
approximately -20°C.

- Mixing appropriate amounts with (Type of food): The test item was incorporated into the diet at concentrations of 13000, 4000 and
1300 ppm as follows:
A known amount of test item was mixed with a small amount of basal laboratory diet
using Robot Coupe Blixer 4 until homogenous. This pre-mix was then added to a larger
amount of basal laboratory diet and mixed for a further thirty minutes at a constant
speed, setting 1 in a Hobart QE200 mixer.

- Storage temperature of food:The diet was stored in labelled, double plastic bags and placed in a -20°C freezer
when not in use.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
yes
Details on analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
The concentration of Patchouli Oil in the dietary admixtures was determined by gas
chromatography (GC) using an external standard technique.

Samples
The dietary admixtures were extracted with acetonitrile to give a final, theoretical test
item concentration of approximately 100 ppm.

Standards
Standard solutions of test item were prepared in acetonitrile at a nominal concentration
of 100 ppm. The standard solutions contained the equivalent amount of diet to that of the
samples.

The standard and sample solutions were analysed by GC using the following conditions:
GC system : Agilent Technologies 5890, incorporating
autosampler and workstation
Column : DB-5 (30 m x 0.25 mm id x 0.25 μm film)
Oven temperature program : initial 100 ºC for 0 mins
rate 10 ºC/min
final 325 ºC for 2 mins
Injection temperature : 250 ºC
Flame ionisation detector temperature: 250 ºC
Injection volume : 1 μl
Retention time : Profile of peaks from ~ 8 to 12 mins
Details on mating procedure:
On Day 15, animals were paired on a 1 male: 1 female basis within each dose
group for a maximum of fourteen days.
Following evidence of mating (designated as Day 0 post coitum) the males were
returned to their original cages and females were transferred to individual cages.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Up to eight weeks (including a two week maturation phase, pairing, gestation and early lactation for females.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Duration of test:
55 days
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10/sex/dose
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle

Examinations

Maternal examinations:
Clinical Observations
All animals were examined for overt signs of toxicity, ill-health and behavioural change
daily. All observations were recorded.

Body Weight
Individual body weights were recorded on Day 1 (prior to dosing) and then weekly for
males until termination and weekly for females until mating was evident. Body weights
were then recorded for females on Days 0, 7, 14 and 20 post coitum, and on Days 1 and
4 post partum and at terminal kill.

Food Consumption
During the maturation period, weekly food consumption was recorded for each cage of
adults until pairing. This was continued for males after the mating phase. For females
showing evidence of mating, food consumption was recorded for the periods covering
post coitum Days 0-7, 7-14 and 14-20. For females with live litters, food consumption
was recorded during the lactation period (Days 1-4).
Weekly food efficiency (body weight gain/food intake) was calculated retrospectively for
males and for females during the pre-mating phase. Due to offspring growth and milk
production for lactation, food efficiency for females could not be accurately calculated
during gestation and lactation.

Water Consumption
Water intake was observed daily by visual inspection of water bottles for any overt
changes.

Reproduction Performance:
Mating
Animals were paired on a 1 male: 1 female basis within each dose group, for a period of
up to fourteen days. Cage tray-liners were checked each morning for the presence of
ejected copulation plugs and each female was examined for the presence of a copulation
plug in the vagina. A vaginal smear was prepared for each female and the stage of
oestrus or the presence of sperm was recorded. The presence of sperm within the
vaginal smear and/or vaginal plug in situ was taken as positive evidence of mating (Day
0 of gestation) and the males were subsequently returned to their original holding cages
(unless required for additional pairing). Mated females were housed individually during
the period of gestation and lactation. Females failing to mate were also housed
individually after the mating phase.

Pregnancy and Parturition
Each pregnant female was observed at approximately 0830, 1230 and 1630 hours and
around the period of expected parturition. Observations were carried out at
approximately 0830 and 1230 hours at weekends and public holidays. The following was
recorded for each female:
i) Date of pairing
ii) Date of mating
iii) Date and time of observed start of parturition
iv) Date and time of observed completion of parturition

Pathology
Adult males were killed by intravenous overdose of sodium pentobarbitone followed by
exsanguination on Day 43. Adult females were killed by intravenous overdose of sodium
pentobarbitone followed by exsanguination on Day 5 post partum. Surviving offspring
were terminated via intracardiac overdose of sodium pentobarbitone. Any females which
failed to achieve pregnancy or produce a litter were killed on or after Day 26 post coitum.
For all females, the uterus was examined for signs of implantation and the number of
uterine implantations in each horn was recorded. This procedure was enhanced; as
necessary, by staining the uteri with a 0.5% ammonium polysulphide solution (Salewski
1964).
All adult animals and offspring, including those dying during the study, were subjected to
a full external and internal examination, and any macroscopic abnormalities were
recorded.

Organ Weights
The epididymides and testes were removed from terminal kill adult males dissected free
from fat and weighed before fixation.

Histopathology
Samples of the following tissues were preserved from all animals from each dose group,
in buffered 10% formalin, except where stated:
Coagulating gland
Prostate
Epididymides♦
Seminal vesicles
Ovaries
Testes♦
Mammary gland (females only)
Uterus/Cervix
Pituitary
Vagina

♦ = preserved in Bouin’s fluid then transferred to 70% Industrial Methylated Spirits (IMS) approximately
forty-eight hours later

The tissues from control and 13000 ppm dose group animals, any animals dying during
the study, and any animals which failed to mate or did not achieve a pregnancy were
prepared as paraffin blocks, sectioned at a nominal thickness of 5 μm and stained with
Haematoxylin and Eosin for subsequent microscopic examination. In addition, sections
of testes and epididymides from all control and 13000 ppm males were also stained with
Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and examined.
Since there were indications of treatment related mammary gland, prostate, seminal
vesicles and coagulating gland changes, examination was subsequently extended to
include similarly prepared sections of these organs from animals from the low and
intermediate groups.
Fetal examinations:
Litter Data
On completion of parturition (Day 0 post partum), the number of live and dead offspring
was recorded. Offspring were individually identified within each litter by tattoo on Day 1
post partum.
For each litter the following was recorded:
i) Number of offspring born
ii) Number of offspring alive recorded daily and reported on Days 1 and 4 post
partum
iii) Sex of offspring on Days 1 and 4 post partum
iv) Clinical condition of offspring from birth to Day 5 post partum
v) Individual offspring weights on Days 1 and 4 post partum (litter weights were
calculated retrospectively from this data)
Physical Development
All live offspring were assessed for surface righting reflex on Day 1 post partum.

Offspring, including those dying during the study, were subjected to
a full external and internal examination, and any macroscopic abnormalities were
recorded.
Statistics:
The following parameters were subjected to statistical analysis:
Body weight and body weight change
Food consumption for females during gestation and lactation
Gestation length
Litter size and litter weights
Sex ratio
Corpora lutea and implantation sites
Implantation losses and viability indices
Offspring body weight and body weight change
Offspring surface righting
Adult absolute and body weight-relative organ weights (Males)

The following statistical procedures were used:
Data for males and females prior to pairing, where appropriate, quantitative data were
analysed by the Provantis™ Tables and Statistics Module. For each variable, the most
suitable transformation of the data was found, the use of possible covariates checked
and the homogeneity of means assessed using ANOVA and ANCOVA and Bartletts’s
test. The transformed data were analysed to find the lowest treatment level that showed
a significant effect, using the Williams Test for parametric data or the Shirley Test for
non-parametric data. If no dose response was found, but the data showed nonhomogeneity
of means, the data were analysed by a stepwise Dunnett (parametric) or
Steel (non-parametric) test to determine significant differences from the control group.
Finally, if required, pair wise tests were performed using the Student t-test (parametric)
or the Mann-Whitney U test (non-parametric).
Data for females during gestation and lactation, and offspring data were assessed for
dose response relationships by linear regression analysis, followed by one way analysis
of variance (ANOVA) incorporating Levene’s test for homogeneity of variance. Where
variances were shown to be homogenous, pairwise comparisons were conducted using
Dunnett’s test. Where Levene’s test showed unequal variances the data were analysed
using non-parametric methods: Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test.
Non-parametric methods were also used to analyse implantation loss, offspring sex ratio
and landmark developmental markers.
Indices:
Mating Performance and Fertility
The following parameters were calculated from the individual data during the mating
period of the parental generation:
i) Pre-coital Interval
Calculated as the time elapsing between initial pairing and the observation of positive
evidence of mating.
ii) Fertility Indices
For each group the following were calculated:
Mating Index (%) = (Number of animals mated/Number of animals paired) x 100

Pregnancy Index (%) = (Number of pregnant females/Number of animals mated) x 100

Gestation and Parturition Data
The following parameters were calculated from individual data during the gestation and
parturition period of the parental generation:
i) Gestation Length
Calculated as the number of days of gestation including the day for observation of mating
and the start of parturition.
ii) Parturition Index
The following was calculated for each group:
Parturition Index (%) = (Number of females delivering live offspring/Number of pregnant females) x 100

Litter Responses
The standard unit of assessment was considered to be the litter, therefore values were
first calculated for each litter and the group mean was calculated using their individual
litter values. Group mean values included all litters reared to termination (Day 5 of age).
i) Implantation Losses (%)
Group mean percentile pre-implantation and post-implantation loss were calculated for
each female/litter as follows:
% pre–implantation loss = ((Number of corpora lutea - Number of implantation sites)/Number of corpora lutea) x100

% post–implantation loss = ((Number of implantation sites - Total number of offspring born)/Number of implantation sites) x 100

ii) Live Birth and Viability Indices
The following indices were calculated for each litter as follows:
Live Birth Index (%) = (Number of offspring alive on Day 1/Number of offspring born) x 100

Viability Index (%) = (Number of offspring alive on Day 4/ Number of offspring alive on Day 1)x 100

Results and discussion

Results: maternal animals

General toxicity (maternal animals)

Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Dermal irritation (if dermal study):
no effects observed
Mortality:
no mortality observed
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Food efficiency:
effects observed, treatment-related
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
not examined
Haematological findings:
no effects observed
Clinical biochemistry findings:
no effects observed
Urinalysis findings:
not examined
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Immunological findings:
not examined
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Neuropathological findings:
not examined
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Other effects:
not examined

Maternal developmental toxicity

Number of abortions:
no effects observed
Pre- and post-implantation loss:
no effects observed
Total litter losses by resorption:
no effects observed
Early or late resorptions:
no effects observed
Dead fetuses:
no effects observed
Changes in pregnancy duration:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Effects on pregnancy duration" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsMaternalAnimals.MaternalDevelopmentalToxicity.EffectsOnPregnancyDuration): no effects observed
Changes in number of pregnant:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:no effects

Details on maternal toxic effects:
Reproductive Performance:
Mating
There were no treatment related effects on mating performance at any of the dose levels
investigated. The majority of animals mated within the first five days of pairing (i.e. at the
first oestrus opportunity) and the mating index of treated animals was comparable to
controls.
One control female (No.13) and one female treated with 13000 ppm (No.74) did not mate
following fourteen days of cohousing with their male partners. The male partners for
both of these non-mated pairings showed histopathological evidence of either diffuse
tubular atrophy in the testes and increased cellular debris in the epididymides (control
male No.3) or reduced secretory activity in the prostate (13000 ppm male No.64). These
findings may therefore be a contributory factor in the lack of reproductive performance.
The distribution of these findings shows no treatment related trend.

Fertility
There were no treatment related effects detected on fertility indices and pregnancy rate
when compared with controls.
One female treated with 13000 ppm (No.79) showed evidence of pregnancy but no litter
was observed. Histopathological findings showed decidual contents in uterus, cervix and
vagina indicative of pregnancy with possible prenatal and perinatal fetal deaths/losses.
The male partner (No.69) for this female showed a slight hypospermatogenesis in testes
and slight oligospermia in epididymides during microscopic examinations. There is no
conclusive evidence to confirm the significance of male findings upon the observed total
post-implantation litter loss.
One control female (No.19) did not achieve pregnancy following evidence of mating. No
histopathological correlates were evident in the female reproductive organs, however, the male partner (No.9) for this female showed minimal or slight reduction in secretory
activity in prostate and seminal vesicles. The significance of these findings in the
infertility of this male/female pairing could not be established.

Gestation Length
There were no treatment related effects detected in the length of gestation between
control and treated groups. All females showed a gestation length between 22 and 23½
days.

Effect levels (maternal animals)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOEL
Effect level:
4 000 ppm (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: other:

Results (fetuses)

Fetal body weight changes:
no effects observed
Description (incidence and severity):
Migrated Data from removed field(s)
Field "Fetal/pup body weight changes" (Path: ENDPOINT_STUDY_RECORD.DevelopmentalToxicityTeratogenicity.ResultsAndDiscussion.ResultsFetuses.FetalPupBodyWeightChanges): no effects observed
Reduction in number of live offspring:
no effects observed
Changes in sex ratio:
no effects observed
Changes in litter size and weights:
no effects observed
Changes in postnatal survival:
no effects observed
External malformations:
no effects observed
Skeletal malformations:
no effects observed
Visceral malformations:
no effects observed
Other effects:
no effects observed
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:no effects

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Litter Response
Eight females from both control and 13000 ppm dose groups and ten females from 1300
and 4000 ppm dose groups gave birth to a live litter and successfully reared young to
Day 5 of age. The following assessment of litter response is based on all litters reared to
termination on Day 5 of lactation/age.

Offspring Litter Size and Viability
At 13000 ppm a statistically significant reduction was detected in mean corpora lutea
(p<0.01) and a consequential implantation site (p<0.01) number. The mean corpora lutea value was slightly below historical control numbers. Litter size at birth was also
lower than controls showing statistically significant reduction in total number of offspring
born (p<0.05).
No such effects were detected at 1300 and 4000 ppm in mean numbers of corpora lutea,
implantation sites, litter size and implantation losses when compared to control numbers.
There were no treatment related effects detected in survival indices and sex ratio in all
treated litters when compared to controls.

Offspring Growth and Development
There were no clinically observable signs of toxicity detected for offspring from all treated
litters when compared to controls.
Mean values for total litter weight, offspring body weight, body weight changes and
surface righting reflex showed treatment related effects in litters treated with 13000 ppm.
Litter weight values for litters treated with 13000 ppm showed statistically significant
reduction (p<0.05 to p<0.01) during Day 1 and Day 4 evaluations. At this dose level
individual offspring weights were significantly lower than controls during Day 1 and Day 4
assessments whilst male offspring weights during Day 4 showed a statistically significant
effect (p<0.01). Offspring body weight change between Days 1 to 4 was subsequently
affected and a statistically significant reduction (p<0.01 and p<0.05) was evident. Mean
surface righting reflex values showed statistically significant reduction in 13000 ppm
offspring when compared to control values.
No clinically observable signs of toxicity were detected. Instances of swollen limb and
offspring found dead or missing from either control litters or litters from females treated
with 4000 ppm are commonly observed findings in studies of this type and considered to
be unrelated to test item toxicity.

Necropsy:
No treatment related macroscopic abnormalities were detected for interim death or
terminal kill offspring. The incidental findings observed were those occasionally
observed in reproductive studies of this type and were considered to be unrelated to
toxicity of the test item.

Effect levels (fetuses)

Key result
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
4 000 ppm
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other:
Remarks on result:
not determinable due to absence of adverse toxic effects

Fetal abnormalities

Key result
Abnormalities:
no effects observed
Localisation:
other:
Description (incidence and severity):
None

Overall developmental toxicity

Key result
Developmental effects observed:
no
Lowest effective dose / conc.:
4 000 ppm
Treatment related:
no
Relation to maternal toxicity:
developmental effects in the absence of maternal toxicity effects
Dose response relationship:
no
Relevant for humans:
no

Any other information on results incl. tables

Mortality

There were no occurrences of mortality evident during the study period.

Clinical Observations

There were no clinically observable signs of toxicity or signs related to general

appearance throughout the study period for either male or female rats.

Body Weight

Lower mean body weights were evident in all treated groups at interim weighing points

and at termination.

At 13000 ppm males showed statistically significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) reductions in

mean body weight gains during Weeks 2, 3 and 6 of treatment when compared with

control values. Males treated with 1300 or 4000 ppm also showed statistically significant

(p<0.05) reductions in mean body weight gains during Week 3 of treatment.

Females treated with 13000 ppm also showed statistically significant (p<0.05 to p<0.01)

reductions in mean body weight gains during Week 2 of treatment and during the

gestation and lactation phases. Females treated with 4000 ppm also showed a

statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in mean body weight gain during Week 2 of

treatment. Females treated with 1300 ppm showed a slight reduction in mean body

weight gain during Week 2 of treatment, however statistical significance has not been

reached.

Food Consumption and Food Efficiency

For animals treated with 13000 ppm treatment related reductions in food consumption

and food efficiency was evident throughout the treatment period.

Whilst a relationship to treatment at 1300 and 4000 ppm cannot be excluded, reduction

in food consumption and food efficiency was considered minimal and is therefore

considered to be of no toxicological importance.

Water Consumption

Daily visual inspections of the water intake did not reveal any overt changes during the

treatment period.

Necropsy

Adults

There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected during the

post mortem procedure which were considered to be attributable to treatment with the

test item.

Four males treated with 13000 ppm had small seminal vesicles at necropsy, one of these

males also had pale kidneys with increased pelvic space of the right kidney and small

prostate whilst a further male had small epididymides, small prostate and also small and

flaccid testes. In the absence of any other supportive data on adverse effects correlated

to these findings, it was considered of no toxicological importance.

One control male had small testes whilst other control males had small seminal vesicles

and prostate at necropsy.

One female treated with 13000 ppm had brown mass in right horn of the uterus and

cervix at necropsy which corresponded to decidual contents and dilation of the right horn

recorded at histopathology examination. This finding was considered to represent normal background lesion which can be recorded in females of this strain and age. As

such, this finding was considered unrelated to treatment.

In the absence of treatment all findings detected in control animals are considered to be

fortuitous.

Histopathology

Histopathological examination of reproductive tissues from animals treated with

13000 ppm showed possible treatment related changes detected in prostate, seminal

vesicles, coagulating glands and mammary glands. Subsequent examinations of these

tissues from animals treated with 1300 or 4000 ppm were performed and no treatment

related abnormalities were detected.

The remaining microscopic findings were those commonly observed in laboratory

maintained rats of the age and strain employed and there were no differences in

incidence or severity between control and treatment groups that were considered to be of

toxicological significance.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
The oral administration of the test substance to rats by dietary admixture, at dose levels of 1300, 4000
and 13000 ppm (equivalent to a mean achieved dosage of 91.4, 277 and 810 mg/kg
bw/day respectively) resulted in treatment related effects detected in adults treated with
13000 ppm only. This dose level also resulted in a small number of treatment related
effects on offspring pre and post partum with an equivocal effect on the nature of some in
utero parameters.
The ‘No Observed Effect Level’ (NOEL) for systemic toxicity was therefore considered to
be 4000 ppm due to adult toxicity effects detected. The NOEL for reproduction and
offspring development was 4000 ppm.
Executive summary:

Introduction. The study was performed to screen for potential adverse effects of the test

item on reproduction including offspring development and provides an initial hazard

assessment for effect on reproduction. The study is compatible with the requirements of

the recommendations of the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals No. 421

“Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test” (adopted 27 July 1995).

This study was also designed to be compatible with Commission Regulation (EC) No

440/2008 of 30 May 2008 laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No

1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration,

Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

Methods. The test item was administered by dietary admixture to three groups, each of

ten male and ten female Wistar Han™:RccHan™:WIST strain rats, for up to eight weeks

(including a two week maturation phase, pairing, gestation and early lactation for

females), at dose levels of 1300, 4000 and 13000 ppm (equivalent to a mean achieved

dosage of 91.4, 277 and 810 mg/kg bw/day respectively). A control group of ten males

and ten females was dosed with basal laboratory diet.

Clinical signs, body weight change, dietary intake and water consumption were

monitored during the study.

Pairing of animals within each dose group was undertaken on a one male: one female

basis within each treatment group on Day 15 of the study, with females subsequently

being allowed to litter and rear their offspring to Day 5 of lactation.

During the lactation phase, daily clinical observations were performed on all surviving

offspring, together with litter size and offspring weights and assessment of surface

righting reflex.

Adult males were terminated on Day 43, followed by the termination of all females and

offspring on Day 5 post partum. All animals were subjected to a gross necropsy

examination and histopathological evaluation of reproductive tissues was performed.

Results.

Adult Responses:

Mortality. There were no unscheduled deaths during the study.

Clinical Observations. There were no clinically observable signs of toxicity detected.

Body Weight. Reductions in overall mean body weights were evident in all treated

animals of either sex when compared to controls throughout the treatment period.

Food Consumption and Food Efficiency. Reductions in overall food consumption and

food efficiency values were recorded in animals of either sex treated with 13000 ppm.

Water Consumption. No intergroup differences were detected.

Reproductive Screening:

Mating. There were no treatment related effects detected on mating performance in

treated animals when compared to controls.

Fertility. There were no treatment related effects detected on fertility in treated animals

when compared to controls.

Gestation Lengths. There were no treatment related effects detected on gestation

length.

Litter Responses:

Offspring Litter Size, Sex Ratio and Viability. No treatment related effects were

evident in sex ratio or viability assessments. Litter size was reduced at 13000 ppm.

Offspring Growth and Development. Litter weight, offspring weights and surface

righting reflex mean values were lower at 13000 ppm when compared to controls.

Offspring Observations. There were no clinically observable signs of toxicity detected

for offspring from all treated litters when compared to controls.

Pathology:

Necropsy. There were no toxicologically significant macroscopic abnormalities detected.

Organ Weights. There were no treatment related effects detected in organ weights.

Histopathology. There were no treatment related abnormalities recorded in reproductive

organs during microscopic examinations.

Conclusion. The oral administration of Patchouli Oil to rats by dietary admixture, at dose levels of

1300, 4000 and 13000 ppm (equivalent to a mean achieved dosage of 91.4, 277 and

810 mg/kg bw/day respectively) resulted in treatment related effects detected in adults

treated with 13000 ppm only. This dose level also resulted in a small number of

treatment related effects on offspring pre and post partum with an equivocal effect on the

nature of some in utero parameters.

The ‘No Observed Effect Level’ (NOEL) for systemic toxicity was therefore considered to

be 4000 ppm due to adult toxicity effects detected. The NOEL for reproduction and

offspring development was 4000 ppm.