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Environmental fate & pathways

Bioaccumulation: aquatic / sediment

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Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Various studies summarised in EU RAR and Dutch ICD
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
The RAR summarises the results of a number of studies
GLP compliance:
not specified
Radiolabelling:
no
Route of exposure:
aqueous
Type:
BCF
Value:
>= 53 - <= 58 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Fish -Sloof et al (1988)
Type:
BCF
Value:
< 2 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Fish - Sloof et al (1988)
Type:
BCF
Value:
3.2 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater mollusca- Chaisemartin
Type:
BCF
Value:
7.5 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Aquatic macrophyta - Chaisemartin
Type:
BCF
Value:
>= 27 - <= 62 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Seawater Crustacea - Hemens and Warwick (1972)
Type:
BCF
Value:
30 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Seawater Fish - Sloof et al (1988)

The limited data indicate that fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment is of little significance. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissues.

Conclusions:
In freshwater aquatic organisms it was found that the fluoride accumulates primarily in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the bones of fish. In an experimental marine ecosystem with fish, crustaceans and plants, fluoride was found to accumulate in all species.
Executive summary:

In freshwater aquatic organisms it was found that the fluoride accumulates primarily in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the bones of fish. In fish, the BCF value was between 53 -58 (d.w.) and <2 (w.w.). In crustacea, BCF value was <1 (d.w.). The highest reported BCF value for mollusca and aquatic macrophyta were 3.2 and 7.5 (w.w) respectively. In an experimental marine ecosystem with fish, crustaceans and plants, F was found to accumulate in all species. The highest value, 149, was found in fish. BCF values for crustacea range from 27 to 62 (Hemens and Warwick, 1972). Fluoride concentrations up to 30 mg F/kg were found in consumption fish (Slooff et al, 1988). The limited data indicate that fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment is of little significance. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissue

Endpoint:
bioaccumulation in aquatic species, other
Type of information:
read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Justification for type of information:
REPORTING FORMAT FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH

1. HYPOTHESIS FOR THE ANALOGUE APPROACH
Dipotassium hexafluorotitanate is an inorganic substance which will rapidly dissociate into fluoride, potassium and titanium ions upon dissolution in the environment. However, titanium ions will not remain in solution, only fluoride ions do. The approach follows scenario 1 of the RAAF (ECHA 2017).

2. SOURCE AND TARGET CHEMICAL(S) (INCLUDING INFORMATION ON PURITY AND IMPURITIES)
Source
fluoride salts (various)
Target
Dipotassium hexafluorotitanate (CAS 1619-27-0)

3. ANALOGUE APPROACH JUSTIFICATION
The analysis of dissolved titanium levels in aquatic toxicity test solutions for algae, daphnia and fish according to OECD 201, 202 and 203 (Schlechtriem, 2013a, b; Teigeler, 2013) indicates that up to a loading of 100 mg/L dipotassium hexafluorotitanate, very low levels of titanium (often < 10% or even 5%) remain in solution at environmentally relevant pH while nearly all of the fluoride (often more than 95 %) could be recovered.
Thus, regarding the environmental fate and toxicity of dipotassium hexafluorotitanate, it can be assumed that toxicity (if any) will be driven by the fluoride anion. Therefore, full read-across to potassium fluoride (CAS #7789-23-3) and other fluorides based upon a molecular weight conversion is justified.

4. DATA MATRIX
see attached read-across statement in section 13.2
Reason / purpose for cross-reference:
read-across source
Type:
BCF
Value:
>= 53 - <= 58 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body d.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Fish -Sloof et al (1988)
Type:
BCF
Value:
< 2 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Fish - Sloof et al (1988)
Type:
BCF
Value:
3.2 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater mollusca- Chaisemartin
Type:
BCF
Value:
7.5 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Freshwater Aquatic macrophyta - Chaisemartin
Type:
BCF
Value:
>= 27 - <= 62 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Seawater Crustacea - Hemens and Warwick (1972)
Type:
BCF
Value:
30 dimensionless
Basis:
whole body w.w.
Remarks on result:
other: Seawater Fish - Sloof et al (1988)

The limited data indicate that fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment is of little significance. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissues.

Conclusions:
In freshwater aquatic organisms it was found that the fluoride accumulates primarily in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the bones of fish. In an experimental marine ecosystem with fish, crustaceans and plants, fluoride was found to accumulate in all species.
Executive summary:

In freshwater aquatic organisms it was found that the fluoride accumulates primarily in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the bones of fish. In fish, the BCF value was between 53 -58 (d.w.) and <2 (w.w.). In crustacea, BCF value was <1 (d.w.). The highest reported BCF value for mollusca and aquatic macrophyta were 3.2 and 7.5 (w.w) respectively. In an experimental marine ecosystem with fish, crustaceans and plants, F was found to accumulate in all species. The highest value, 149, was found in fish. BCF values for crustacea range from 27 to 62 (Hemens and Warwick, 1972). Fluoride concentrations up to 30 mg F/kg were found in consumption fish (Slooff et al, 1988). The limited data indicate that fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment is of little significance. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissue.

Description of key information

Dipotassium hexafluorotitanate will rapidly dissociate into fluoride, potassium and titanium ions upon dissolution in the environment. However, titanium ions will not remain in solution, only fluoride ions do. Therefore, full read-across to potassium fluoride (CAS #7789-23-3) and other fluorides based upon a molecular weight conversion is justified. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissue. Accordingly, it can be assumed that dipotassium hexafluorotitanate does not have a potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic tissues.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

Dipotassium hexafluorotitanate


Dipotassium hexafluorotitanate is an inorganic substance which will rapidly dissociate into fluoride, potassium and titanium ions upon dissolution in the environment. However, titanium ions will not remain in solution, only fluoride ions do. The analysis of dissolved titanium levels in aquatic toxicity test solutions for algae, daphnia and fish according to OECD 201, 202 and 203 (Schlechtriem, 2013a, b; Teigeler, 2013) indicates that up to a loading of 100 mg/L dipotassium hexafluorotitanate, very low levels of titanium (often < 10% or even 5%) remain in solution at environmentally relevant pH while nearly all of the fluoride (often more than 95 %) could be recovered.


Thus, regarding the environmental fate and toxicity of dipotassium hexafluorotitanate, it can be assumed that toxicity (if any) will be driven by the fluoride anion. Therefore, full read-across to potassium fluoride (CAS #7789-23-3) and other fluorides based upon a molecular weight conversion is justified.


 


Fluorides


In freshwater aquatic organisms it was found that the fluoride accumulates primarily in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the bones of fish. In fish, the BCF value was between 53 -58 (d.w.) and <2 (w.w.). In crustacea, BCF value was <1 (d.w.). The highest reported BCF value for mollusca and aquatic macrophyta were 3.2 and 7.5 (w.w) respectively. In an experimental marine ecosystem with fish, crustaceans and plants, fluoride was found to accumulate in all species. The highest value, 149, was found in fish. BCF values for crustacea range from 27 to 62. Fluoride concentrations up to 30 mg F/kg were found in consumption fish. The limited data indicate that fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment is of little significance. Fluoride accumulates in aquatic organisms predominantly in the exoskeleton of crustacea and in the skeleton of fish; no accumulation was reported for edible tissue.