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In an earthworm reproduction study according to OECD 222, a NOEC of 125 mg/kg dw for reproduction was obtained after 8 weeks of exposure (BASF SE, DSM Nutritional Products AG, Merck KGaA, Symrise AG, 2017). The corresponding NOEC values for both mortality and biomass were both above 500 mg/kg dw.

The resulting environmental risk assessment for cosmetic use in sunscreen products indicate a potential risk for soil organisms. Therefore, an additional test on soil microorganisms (OECD 216) is proposed.