Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Endpoint:
additional toxicological information
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Acceptable well documented publications which meet basic scientific principles

Data source

Referenceopen allclose all

Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Photochemical cleavage of a tattoo pigment by UVB radiation or natural sunlight
Author:
Engel E, Spannberger A, Vasold R, König B, Landthaler M, Bäumler W
Year:
2007
Bibliographic source:
Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft 5: 583-589
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Tattooing of skin results in transportation and light-induced decomposition of tattoo pigments - a first quantification in vivo using a mouse model
Author:
Engel E, Vasold R, Santarelli F, Maisch T, Gopee NV, Howard PC, Landthaler M, Bäumler W
Year:
2010
Bibliographic source:
Experimental Dermatology 19: 54-60

Materials and methods

Type of study / information:
Information on photochemical cleavage Pigment Red 22
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline required
GLP compliance:
not specified

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Pigment Red 22 (PR 22)
- Analytical purity: > 98% (area % HPLC)

Results and discussion

Any other information on results incl. tables

Experiment I:

After UVB-irradiation of PR 22 in solvents the decomposition products 2-methyl-5-nitroaniline (2,5 -MNA), 4 -nitrotoluene (4 -NT) were detectable. After sunlight exposure either 2,5 -MNA and 4 -NT or neither pigment nor decomposition products were detectable, depending on the solvent used. These data indicate that sunlight can cause complete mineralization.

Experiment II:

Pigment reduction during 42 days was about

- 32% in untreated skin;

- 60% in solar light treated skin;

- 51% in laser treated skin.

In laser treated skin 2-methyl-5-nitroaniline (2,5 -MNA), 4 -nitrotoluene (4 -NT) and naphtol AS (NAS) were detectable as decomposition products. The authors calculated that about 8% of decomposed PR 22 was directly detected as 2,5 -MNA and 4 -NT.

In solar light treated skin no 2,5 -MNA and 4 -NT products were detectable.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
In vitro and in vivo investigations revealed that Pigment Red 22 can be decomposed by laser and sunlight.