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Ecotoxicological information

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Three acute freshwater ecotoxicological studies were conducted: a fish, a daphnia and an alga. The least sensitive species was the fish with an LL50 value of 70.7 mg/L. Because BADGE IPD (#33) has cationic properties, the testing medium was augmented with humic acid, per EPA 1996 (OPPTS 850.1085), in the species predicted to be the most sensitive: the alga. The addition of humic acid reduced the toxicity of BADGE MXDA (#42) to algae from 1.67 mg/L to 79.4 mg/L. This made acute daphnia EL50 (11.1 mg/L) the most sensitive endpoint. Therefore, the daphnia data were used to derive the freshwater, marine and intermittent release PNECs.