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Sodium chlorate is rapidly absorbed (88 to 95% in rats) and excreted in the urine. The only stable metabolite of chlorate was found to be chloride and was detected in both urine and tissues in rats.

A comparative in vitro dermal penetration study using human and rat skin shows that rat skin is considerably more permeable than human skin following application at the low dose level (150 µg/cm2). At the high dose level (5 mg/cm2), the permeability of human and rat skin was similar. The total absorbable percentage was 0.51% and 3.37% for human and rat skin for the high dose, and 1.85% and 18.09% for human and rat skin for the low dose. Sodium chlorate does not rapidly penetrate the skin.