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Sediment toxicity

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Reference
Endpoint:
sediment toxicity: short-term
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
supporting study
Study period:
1995-07-28 to 1995-10-02
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
guideline study
Remarks:
The study was conducted according to a national standard method, and in compliance with GLP.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: PARCOM guideline. Paris Commission Ring Test protocol (1993)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
sediment criteria grain size (min grain size 63 rather than 90 um), and silt clay fraction (26.9% rather than 5-20%). It is not considered by the authors to have adversely affected the outcome of the test. See below for further details on deviations.
Qualifier:
equivalent or similar to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 218 (Sediment-Water Chironomid Toxicity Test Using Spiked Sediment)
Deviations:
yes
Remarks:
see below for details.
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Deviations (contd.):
- no range finding test
- no twilight period
- test substance was not determined in solution
GLP compliance:
yes
Analytical monitoring:
no
Vehicle:
no
Details on sediment and application:
PREPARATION OF SPIKED SEDIMENT

- Details of spiking: adequate amounts of the test substance were weighed and added to glass mixing jars containing ca. 712.5 g of damp natural sediment (ca. 350 g dry sediment). As the sediment was adjudged to be damp enough already to mix easily, natural seawater was not added. The jars were sealed and rolled. Portions of about 75 ml of the spiked and control sediments were placed in each of 4 replicate test vessels which were carefully topped up to 225 ml with natural seawater so as not to disturb the sediment layer. A slight aeration was started and 5 randomly chosen test animals were introduced to each test vessel.

- Equilibration time: ca. 24 h

- Equilibration conditions: rolled on a roller bank at about 15°C.

- Controls: Natural sediment treated in the same way as the spiked sediments was used as a control.
Test organisms (species):
Corophium sp.
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM

- Source: Southern shore of Oosterschelde, The Netherlands.

- Details on collection: collected near the intake point where TNO collects its seawater, close to a break in the former sea dike where a trickle of freshwater emerges. The organisms had a length of ca. 5-8 mm.
Study type:
laboratory study
Test type:
static
Water media type:
saltwater
Type of sediment:
natural sediment
Limit test:
no
Duration:
10 d
Exposure phase:
total exposure duration
Post exposure observation period:
none
Hardness:
Not reported
Test temperature:
range: from 14.9 to 15.8°C
pH:
range: from 7.9 to 8.1
Dissolved oxygen:
Lowest value was 7.1 mg/L
Salinity:
range: 30.4 to 33.2%o
Ammonia:
Not reported.
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Nominal concentrations: 100, 320, 1000, 3200 and 10000 of test material per kg dw.
The results are expressed as active acid. Equal to nominal concentrations: 29.1, 93.1, 291, 931 and 2,910 mg active acid/kg dw.
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM

- Test container (material, size):glass beakers with a volume of ca. 250 ml.

- Sediment volume (weight): ca. 350 g dry spike sediment

- Aeration: yes



EXPOSURE REGIME

- No. of organisms per container (treatment): 5

- No. of replicates per treatment group: 4

- No. of replicates per control: 4



OVERLYING WATER CHARACTERISTCS

- Type of water: natural sea water

- Source of water (if non-standard medium)

- Location: from the Eastern Scheldt, Netherlands.

- Description of sampling site: unpopulated area

- Filtration: filtered through sand upon arrival and checked for concentration of volatile organic compounds, and mineral oil. Each batch of seawater is also checked for gross pollution before use in a four day test with the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia. Before using the water was filtered over a carbon filter and a 5µm membrane filter.


- Salinity:32%o


SOURCE OF NATURAL SEDIMENT

- Location and description of sampling site: same location as test animals.



CHARACTERIZATION OF SEDIMENT

- Particle size distribution: median grain size 63-125 µm, silt clay <63 µm

- Sediment sieved: yes at 0.5 mm on arrival to remove predators, broken shell and larger particles.

- Total organic carbon (%): total organic matter content 2.8% (weight loss on ignition)



OTHER TEST CONDITIONS

- Photoperiod: 16 h light-8 h dark regime with transition periods of 30 minutes.



EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable): mortality, recorded on day 5 and on day 10



TEST CONCENTRATIONS

- Spacing factor for test concentrations: 3
Reference substance (positive control):
no
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 2 910 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect conc.:
> 10 000 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Duration:
10 d
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
>= 2 910 mg/kg sediment dw
Nominal / measured:
nominal
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mortality
Details on results:
- Mortality of test animals at end of exposure period: max 10% average, see Table 1 for details.

- Behavioural abnormalities: the animals are said by the authors to have a condition (general behaviour) equal to that of the control animals.
Reported statistics and error estimates:
Since mortalities were within 10% (average) no statistical analysis was generated.

Table 1: Effect of D2006 on mortality of Corophium sp.

Nominal concentration (mg/kg dw)

Day 5

Day 10

No.
alive

% mortal.

No.
alive

% mortal.

Control

Replicate #1

5

0

5

 0

Replicate #2

5

0

4

20

Replicate #3

5

0

5

0

Replicate #4

5

0

4

20

100

Replicate #1

5

0

5

0

Replicate #2

5

0

5

0

Replicate #3

5

0

5

0

Replicate #4

5

0

5

0

320

Replicate #1

5

0

5

Replicate #2

5

0

5

0

Replicate #3

5

0

4

20

Replicate #4

5

0

5

0

1000

Replicate #1

5

0

5

Replicate #2

5

0

4

20

Replicate #3

5

0

4

20

Replicate #4

5

0

5

0

3200

Replicate #1

5

0

 0

Replicate #2

5

0

4

20

Replicate #3

5

0

4

20

Replicate #4

5

0

5

0

10,000

Replicate #1

5

0

5

0

Replicate #2

5

0

5

0

Replicate #3

5

0

5

0

Replicate #4

5

0

5

0

 

Result expressed as nominal concentration. Properties of the test substance and evidence from other studies (where
concentrations were measured) indicate that nominal and measured concentrations are likely to be in good agreement.

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
A realiable 10 day LC50 value of >10,000 mg test substance/kg dw, equivalent to >2,910 mg active acid/kg dw, has been determined for the effects of the test substance on mortality of the marine sediment dwelling organism Corophium sp..

Description of key information

No long-term test data are available for freshwater sediment-dwelling organisms. A 10-day LC50 value of >2910 mg active acid/kg dw has been determined for the effects of ATMP-H (CAS 6419-19-8) on mortality of the marine sediment-dwelling invertebrate Corophium sp. (TNO, 1997).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Additional information

No long-term toxicity test data are available for sediment-dwelling organisms. In the absence of long-term test data a PNECsediment can be calculated from the PNECaquatic by the equilibrium partitioning method. Any requirement for further testing will be determined on the basis of the outcome of the risk characterisation carried out in accordance with Annex I.

Testing for toxicity to sediment organisms is not considered necessary because:

- PNECsediment has been calculated from PNECfreshwater on the basis of the equilibrium partitioning method; the risk characterisation ratio (RCR) based on PNECsediment is <1.