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Administrative data

Description of key information

The acute oral LD50 of the substance in the rat is >2000 mg/kg bw.  The acute 4-hour inhalation LC50 of the substance in the rat is >5.07 mg/L. No data is available for acute dermal toxicity, however very low toxicity can be predicted.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Acute toxicity: via oral route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: oral
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
September 4th through 18th, 1991
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed to according to GLP and internationally accepted test guidelines.
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.1 (Acute Toxicity (Oral))
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
other: Sprague-Dawley origin Crl.CD(SD)BR VAF plus
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Charles River U.K. Limited, Margate, Kent, England
- Age at study initiation: four to seven weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 116-134 g
- Fasting period before study: overnight and 4 hours after dosing
- Housing:The rats were allocated without conscious bias to cages within the treatment group. They were housed in groups of up to five rats of the same sex in metal cages with wire mesh floors in Building R14 Room 6.
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): A standard laboratory rodent diet (Biosure LAD 1) were provided ad libitum
- Water: ad libitum
- Acclimation period:7 days


ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 20 to 23°C
- Humidity (%): 60%
- Air changes (per hr): 10 to 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12/12


IN-LIFE DATES: From: 04 September 1991 To: 18 September 1991.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on oral exposure:
VEHICLE
- Concentration in vehicle: 20% w/v in distilled water

MAXIMUM DOSE VOLUME APPLIED: 10 ml/kg bw
Doses:
2.0g/kg bw
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5 rats/sex/dose
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
- Duration of observation period following administration: 14 days
- Frequency of observations and weighing: Observed for clinical signs daily; bodyweights recorded on day 1, day 8, and day 15
- Necropsy of survivors performed: yes
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight
Statistics:
Statistics were not performed
Preliminary study:
No preliminary study was reported.
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LD50
Effect level:
> 2 000 mg/kg bw
Based on:
test mat.
Remarks on result:
other: No deaths at the limit dose
Mortality:
There were no deaths following a single oral dose of dipentaerythritol at 2.0 g/kg bodyweight.
Clinical signs:
Piloerection and abnormal body carriage (hunched posture) were observed in all rats within five minutes of dosing and throughout the remainder of Day 1. There were no other clinical signs and recovery, as judged by external appearance and behaviour, was complete by Day 2.
Body weight:
Slightly low bodyweight gains were recorded for three males on Day 8; these animals achieved anticipated gains on Day 15. All other rats achieved anticipated bodyweight gains throughout the study.
Gross pathology:
No macroscopic abnormalties were observed for animals killed on Day 15.
Other findings:
No other findings reported.

No additional information.

Interpretation of results:
not classified
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
The substance is of low acute toxicity. The acute oral LD50 of dipentaerythritol to rats was > 2000 mg/kg bw under the conditions of this study. Classification is not required.
Executive summary:

A study was performed to assess the acute oral toxicity of dipentaerythritol to the rat. The method followed was that described in EEC Methods for the determination of toxicity, Directive 84/449/EEC (OJ No. L251, 19.9.84), Part B, Method B.1. Acute toxicity (oral).

A group of ten fasted rats (five males and five females) was given a single dose by gavage of the test substance, formulated in distilled water, at a dose level of 2.0 g/kg bodyweight. All animals were killed and examined macroscopically on Day 15, the end of the observation period.

There were no deaths. Clinical signs of reaction to treatment were limited to piloerection and abnormal body carriage and recovery was complete by Day 2. Slightly low bodyweight gains were recorded for three males on Day 8; these rats achieved anticipated gains on Day 15. All other rats achieved anticipated bodyweight gains throughout the study. No abnormalities were recorded at the macroscopic examination on Day 15.

The acute lethal oral dose to rats of dipentaerythritol was found to be greater than 2.0 g/kg bodyweight under the conditions of this study. Dipentaerythritol is not classified for acute oral toxicity according to the CLP Regulation.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Dose descriptor:
LD50
2 000 mg/kg bw
Quality of whole database:
A guideline and GLP-compliant rat study is available for this endpoint

Acute toxicity: via inhalation route

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
acute toxicity: inhalation
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
13 October 2015 to 05 November 2015
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: GLP and OECD guideline compliant with no deviations
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 403 (Acute Inhalation Toxicity)
Version / remarks:
2009
Deviations:
no
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
EU Method B.2 (Acute Toxicity (Inhalation))
Version / remarks:
2014
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes (incl. certificate)
Test type:
standard acute method
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Wistar
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Envigo RMS (UK) Limited, Oxon, UK.
- Age at study initiation: 8-12 weeks
- Weight at study initiation: 200-350 g
- Housing: groups of up to five by sex in solid-floor polypropylene cages with stainless steel lids, furnished with softwood flakes (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK) and provided with environmental enrichment items: wooden chew blocks and cardboard “fun tunnels” (Datesand Ltd., Cheshire, UK).
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): Rodent 2014C Teklad Global Certified Diet (Envigo RMS (UK) Limited, Oxon, UK), ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): mains drinking water, ad libitum
- Acclimation period: at least 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 19-25°C
- Humidity (%): 30-70%
- Air changes (per hr): at least 15/hour
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hour cycle

IN-LIFE DATES: From: 13 October 2015 To: 05 November 2015
Route of administration:
inhalation: dust
Type of inhalation exposure:
nose only
Vehicle:
air
Details on inhalation exposure:
In order to facilitate aerosolisation and reduce particle size, the test item was ground using a Retsch Planetary Ball Mill (Retsch (UK) Ltd, Leeds, UK) prior to use. A dust atmosphere was produced from the test substance using a SAG 410 Solid Aerosol Generator (TOPAS GmbH, Dresden, Germany) located adjacent to the exposure chamber. The SAG 410 was connected to a metered compressed air supply. Compressed air was supplied by means of an oil free compressor and passed through a water trap and respiratory quality filters before it was introduced to the SAG 410. The cylindrical exposure chamber had a volume of approximately 30 liters (dimensions: 28 cm diameter x 50 cm high). The concentration within the chamber was controlled by adjusting the test substance feed rate from the SAG 410. The extract from the exposure chamber passed through a ‘scrubber’ trap and was connected with a high efficiency filter to a metered exhaust system. The chamber was maintained under negative pressure.

One day prior to the day of exposure, each rat was acclimatized (for approximately 2 hours) to a tapered polycarbonate restraining tube. During the exposure period, each rat was individually held in a tapered, polycarbonate restraining tube fitted onto a single tier of the exposure chamber
and sealed by means of a rubber ‘O’ ring. Only the nose of each animal was exposed to the test atmosphere. Following an appropriate equilibration period a single group of ten rats (five males and five females) was exposed to an atmosphere of the test item for a period of four hours. A target
concentration of 5.0 mg/L was used for the exposure. As the mean achieved concentration was 101 % of target and no deaths occurred, no further levels were required.

The temperature and relative humidity inside the exposure chamber were measured by an electronic thermometer/humidity meter (Hanna Instruments Ltd, Beds., UK) located in a vacant port in the animals’ breathing zone of the chamber and recorded every thirty minutes throughout the four-hour exposure period. Oxygen levels within the exposure chamber were measured by an electronic oxygen analyzer (Servomex (UK) Ltd, Crowborough, East Sussex) located in a port in the animals breathing zone during the four-hour exposure period. The test atmosphere was generated to contain at least 19% oxygen.
Analytical verification of test atmosphere concentrations:
yes
Duration of exposure:
4 h
Concentrations:
5.07 mg/L (achieved)
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
no
Details on study design:
All animals were observed for clinical signs at hourly intervals during exposure, immediately on removal from the restraining tubes at the end of exposure, one hour after termination of exposure and subsequently once daily for fourteen days. Any evidence of overt toxicity was recorded at each observation. Individual body weights were recorded on arrival, prior to treatment on the day of exposure and on Days 1, 3, 7 and 14. At the end of the fourteen day observation period the animals were killed by intravenous overdose of sodium pentobarbitone. All animals were subjected to a full external and internal examination, and any macroscopic abnormalities were recorded. The respiratory tract was subjected to a detailed macroscopic examination for signs of irritancy or local toxicity.

Data evaluations included the relationship, if any, between the animals’ exposure to the test item and the incidence and severity of all abnormalities including behavioral and clinical observations, necropsy findings, body weight changes, mortality and any other toxicological effects. Using the mortality data obtained, an estimate of the acute inhalation median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test item was made.
Statistics:
Not required.
Preliminary study:
Not applicable.
Sex:
male/female
Dose descriptor:
LC50
Effect level:
> 5.07 mg/L air (analytical)
Based on:
test mat.
Exp. duration:
4 h
Mortality:
No mortalities occured.
Clinical signs:
Signs of hunched posture and pilo- erection are commonly seen in animals for short periods on removal from the chamber following 4-Hour inhalation studies. Wet fur is commonly recorded both during and for a short period after exposure. These observations are considered to be associated with the restraint procedure and, in isolation, are not indicative of toxicity. In addition to the observations considered to be due to the restraint procedure, decreased respiratory rate was noted in all animals during exposure, on removal from the chamber and one hour after removal. One day after exposure, all animals exhibited increased respiratory rate only. All animals recovered to appear normal on Day 2 post-exposure.
Body weight:
All animals exhibited body weight losses on the first day post-exposure. Body weight gains were noted in all animals during the remainder of the recovery period.
Gross pathology:
No macroscopic abnormalities were detected amongst animals at necropsy.
Other findings:
No other findings reported.

Exposure Chamber Concentration

Atmosphere Concentration

Mean Achieved (mg/L)

Standard Deviation

Nominal (mg/L)

5.07

0.17

14.4

Particle Size Distribution

Mean Achieved Atmosphere Concentration (mg/L)

Mean Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (µm)

Inhalable Fraction (% <4 µm)

Geometric Standard Deviation

5.07

1.73

74.9

3.50

The chamber flow rate was maintained at 60 L/min providing 120 air changes per hour. The theoretical chamber equilibration time (T99) was 3 minutes* (Silver, 1946).

 

Interpretation of results:
not classified
Remarks:
Migrated information Criteria used for interpretation of results: EU
Conclusions:
No deaths occurred in a group of ten rats exposed to a mean achieved atmosphere concentration of 5.07 mg/L for four hours. The acute 4 hr LC50 is therefore considered to be greater than 5.07 mg/L and classification is not required.
Executive summary:

The acute inhalation toxicity of dipentaerythritol was investigated in 5 male and 5 female RccHAN:WIST rats, according to OECD 403 (2009). The rats were exposed nose-only to a dust atmosphere for four-hours, followed by a 14-day observation period. The mean achieved atmosphere concentration was 5.07 mg/L (nominal 14.4 mg/L). The MMAD was determined to be 1.73 µm with a geometric standard deviation of 3.50, and the inhalable fraction (% <4 µm) was 74.9%. No deaths occurred. Common abnormalities noted during the study included decreased respiratory rate, increased respiratory rate, hunched posture, pilo-erection and wet fur. All animals recovered to appear normal on Day 2 post-exposure. All animals exhibited body weight losses on the first day post-exposure. All animals exhibited body weight gains during the remainder of the recovery period. No macroscopic abnormalities were detected at necropsy. No deaths occurred in a group of ten rats exposed to a mean achieved atmosphere concentration of 5.07 mg/L for four hours; the acute LC50 is therefore considered to be greater than 5.07 mg/L. Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 is not required.

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Quality of whole database:
Modern guideline and GLP-compliant rat study is available for this endpoint

Acute toxicity: via dermal route

Endpoint conclusion
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available

Additional information

Acute oral toxicity

The acute oral toxicity of dipentaerythritol was assessed in a GLP study, according to EU Method B.1 (Allan, 1991).

A group of ten fasted rats (five males and five females) were given a single dose by gavage of the test substance, formulated in distilled water, at a dose level of 2.0 g/kg bodyweight. All animals were killed and examined macroscopically on Day 15, the end of the observation period. There were no deaths. Clinical signs of reaction to treatment were limited to piloerection and abnormal body carriage and recovery was complete by Day 2. Slightly low bodyweight gains were recorded for three males on Day 8; these rats achieved anticipated gains on Day 15. All other rats achieved anticipated bodyweight gains throughout the study. No abnormalities were recorded at the macroscopic examination on Day 15. The acute lethal oral dose to rats of dipentaerythritol was found to be greater than 2.0 g/kg bodyweight.

Acute inhalation toxicity

The acute inhalation toxicity if di-pentaerythritol was assessed in a modern GLP study, according to OECD 403 (Griffiths, 2015). A group of ten rats (five males and five females) were exposed nose-only to a dust atmosphere for four-hours, followed by a 14-day observation period. The mean achieved atmosphere concentration was 5.07 mg/L (nominal 14.4 mg/L). The MMAD was determined to be 1.73 µm with a geometric standard deviation of 3.50, and the inhalable fraction (% <4 µm) was 74.9%. No deaths occurred. Common abnormalities noted during the study included decreased respiratory rate, increased respiratory rate, hunched posture, pilo-erection and wet fur. All animals recovered to appear normal on Day 2 post-exposure. All animals exhibited body weight losses on the first day post-exposure. All animals exhibited body weight gains during the remainder of the recovery period. No macroscopic abnormalities were detected at necropsy. No deaths occurred in a group of ten rats exposed to a mean achieved atmosphere concentration of 5.07 mg/L for four hours; the acute LC50 is therefore considered to be greater than 5.07 mg/L.

Acute dermal toxicity

A waiver is proposed in line with Column 2 of Annex VIII of the REACH regulation. Data relevant to the acute toxicity of the substance by the oral and inhalation routes are available. The substance is of inherently low acute toxicity and dermal absorption is unlikley to be particularly rapid or extensive. Low toxicity by this route can therefore also be reliably be predicted. Additional testing for acute dermal toxicity is not warranted on scientific grounds and for reasons of animal welfare.


Justification for selection of acute toxicity – oral endpoint
Only study available for this endpoint

Justification for selection of acute toxicity – inhalation endpoint
Only study available for this endpoint

Justification for classification or non-classification

The substance is of low acute oral toxicity (LD50 >2000 mg/kg bw) and low acute inhalation toxicity (4 -h LC50 > 5.07 mg/L). No data are available for acute dermal toxicity, however very low toxicity by this route is also predicted. The substance does not therefore require classification for acute toxicity according to EC Regulation 1272/2008.