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Toxicological information

Epidemiological data

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
epidemiological data
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
disregarded due to major methodological deficiencies
Reliability:
other: human data; not reliable; not rated acc. to Klimish
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Data not reliable, because potential occupational co-exposure to other chemicals was not studied.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
publication
Title:
Community Study of spontaneous abortions: relation to occupation and air pollution by sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon disulfide.
Author:
Hemminki, K.; Niemi, M.L.
Year:
1982
Bibliographic source:
Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 51, 55-63

Materials and methods

Study type:
cohort study (retrospective)
Endpoint addressed:
developmental toxicity / teratogenicity
Test guideline
Qualifier:
no guideline followed
Principles of method if other than guideline:
Spontaneous abortions were analyzed in the industrial community Valkeakoski (Finland) in relation to the occupation of women and their husbands, and on the level of air pollution in the residential area. Information on abortions was obtained from the hospital discharge registries. In total, the data consisted of 1792 patients (from 1974 to 1977). Only women for the ages of 20 to 39 were considered. The residential areas were divided into two groups according to the mean annual H2S concentration (< 4, and > 4 µg/m3) as obtained from the maps of a special field study concerning the pollutants of the air in Valkeakoski from 1977 to 1979.
GLP compliance:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Hydrogen sulfide
- Molecular formula (if other than submission substance): H2S
- Molecular weight (if other than submission substance): 34.08 g/mol
- Smiles notation (if other than submission substance): S
- InChl (if other than submission substance): InChl=1/H2S/h1H2
- Substance type: technical product
- Physical state: gaseous

Method

Type of population:
general
Ethical approval:
not specified
Details on study design:
HYPOTHESIS TESTED (if cohort or case control study):
- Spontaneous abortions were analyzed in the industrial community Valkeakoski (Finland) in relation to the occupation of women and their husbands, and on the level of air pollution in the residential area.

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
- Type: record review
- Details: information on abortions was obtained from the hospital discharge registries. Information on the women and their families was obtained from files of the population and housing census.

SETTING:
Industrial community: Valkeakoski (Finland)

STUDY POPULATION
- In total, the data consisted of 1792 patients (from 1974 to 1977) who were treated for spontaneous and induced abortions.
- Only women for the ages of 20 to 39 were considered.
- For comparison information, the residential areas were divided into two groups according to the mean annual H2S concentration (< 4, and > 4 µg/m3) as obtained from the maps of a special field study concerning the pollutants of the air in Valkeakoski from 1977 to 1979.
Exposure assessment:
measured
Details on exposure:
Information on the regional mean concentration of hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide was obtained from the maps of a special field study of the Institute of Meterological Sciences concerning the pollutants of the air in Valkeakoski from 1977-1979.

Results and discussion

Results:
- Women who were employed in rayon textile and paper product jobs had an increased rate (p<0.10) of spontaneous abortions.
- The wives of men employed in transport and communication, in rayon textile jobs, and in the chemical process jobs also had an increased rate of spontaneous abortions.
- In material stratified for age, parity, and socioeconomic class, no evidence was found that the level of SO2 or CS2 could be associated with a risk of spontaneous abortion.
- More spontaneous abortions were noted in all socioeconomic classes in areas where the mean annual level of H2S exceeded 4 µg/m3.
- However, the difference (total rates 7.6 and 9.3, respectively) was not statistically significant.

Spontaneous abortions were examined in the industrial community Valkeakoski in Finland. Women who were employed in rayon textile and paper production had an increased rate of spontaneous abortions (p<0.10), as did women whose husbands worked in rayon textile or chemical process jobs.

However, information on potential occupational co-exposure to other chemicals is lacking. Therefore, the data is considered not reliable, because potential occupational co-exposure to other chemicals was not studied.
Confounding factors:
Information on potential occupational co-exposure to other chemicals is lacking.

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Spontaneous abortions were examined in the industrial community Valkeakoski in Finland. Women who were employed in rayon textile and paper production had an increased rate of spontaneous abortions (p<0.10), as did women whose husbands worked in rayon textile or chemical process jobs. However, information on potential occupational co-exposure to other chemicals is lacking.