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Toxicological information

Repeated dose toxicity: oral

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term repeated dose toxicity: oral
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across based on grouping of substances (category approach)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2003
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Guideline study according to GLP
Cross-reference
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2003
Report Date:
2003

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 407 (Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity in Rodents)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Name of test material (as cited in study report): Genamin OL 100 D

Test animals

Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: Harlan Winkelmann GmbH, Borchen, Germany
- Age at study initiation: approx. 6 weeks
- Fasting period before study: no
- Housing: transparent macrolon cages (type IV)
- Diet (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Water (e.g. ad libitum): ad libitum
- Acclimation period: 5 days

ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
- Temperature (°C): 22 +/- 3 °C
- Humidity (%): 50 +/- 20 %
- Air changes (per hr): 12 - 15
- Photoperiod (hrs dark / hrs light): 12 hours periodically

Administration / exposure

Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
other: sesame oil
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
no
Duration of treatment / exposure:
28 applications in 29 days
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Doses / concentrationsopen allclose all
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0 mg/kg body weight per day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
3.25 mg/kg body weight per day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
12.5 mg/kg body weight per day
Basis:
actual ingested
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
50 mg/kg body weight per day
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
5
Control animals:
yes, concurrent vehicle
Details on study design:
- Dose selection rationale: preliminary dose-range-finding study
- Rationale for animal assignment (if not random): random
- Rationale for selecting satellite groups: recovery group
- Post-exposure recovery period in satellite groups: 14 days
- Section schedule rationale (if not random): random

Examinations

Observations and examinations performed and frequency:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: twice daily for mortality, once daily for clinical signs

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes
- Time schedule: once daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: before treatment, then twice weekly

FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE:
- Food consumption was determined continously two times per week

HAEMATOLOGY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: at termination and after recovery period
- Anaesthetic used for blood collection: Yes (ketamin-hydrochloride + xylazine)
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals: all

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of blood: after blood sampling for haematological testing, animals were killed and exsanguinated
- Animals fasted: No
- How many animals: all

URINALYSIS: Yes
- Time schedule for collection of urine:urine collection overnight from day 25 to day 26
- Metabolism cages used for collection of urine: Yes
- Animals fasted: Yes: food and water was withdrawn during this period

NEUROBEHAVIOURAL EXAMINATION: Yes
- Time schedule for examinations: once before first treatment, then once a week
- Dose groups that were examined: all
- Examinations: at all examinations: changes in appearance, occurence of secretions/excretions, autonomic activity (lacrimation, salivation, nasal discharge, piloerection, pupil size, unusual respiratory pattern), changes in gait, posture, response to handling, presence of clonic/tonic movements, tremor, other abnormal motor movements (excessive grooming, repetitive circling, other stereotypes), bizarre behaviour, defecation, urination
- Battery of functions tested: at termination of the study:sensory activity, grip strengt, motor activity
Sacrifice and pathology:
GROSS PATHOLOGY: Yes: macroscopic examinations: skin, orifices, eyes, teeth, oral mucosa, internal organs
HISTOPATHOLOGY: Yes (macroscopic and microscopic examinations): adrenals, bone marrow (sternum), brain with medulla oblongata, epididymides, heart, small intestine (jejunum), large intestine (colon) kidneys, liver, lungs, lymph nodes (mandibular, iliac), nerve (sciatic), ovaries with oviducts, prostate, seminal vesicle, spinal cord (cervical) spleen, stomach, testes, thymus, thyroid gland with parathyroids, trachea with larynx, urinary bladder, uterus, nasal cavities

Results and discussion

Results of examinations

Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
stilted gait in high-dose animals, no unscheduled deaths
Mortality:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence):
stilted gait in high-dose animals, no unscheduled deaths
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
decreased in high-dose males and females, and mid-dose males
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
no effects observed
Food efficiency:
no effects observed
Water consumption and compound intake (if drinking water study):
no effects observed
Ophthalmological findings:
no effects observed
Haematological findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slightly increased neutrophils in high-dose animals
Clinical biochemistry findings:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
slightly increased ASAT and ALAT activity in high-dose males
Urinalysis findings:
no effects observed
Behaviour (functional findings):
no effects observed
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
no effects observed
Gross pathological findings:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
no effects observed
Histopathological findings: neoplastic:
no effects observed
Details on results:
CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY
- no unscheduled deaths throughout the study
- 50 mg/kg/day: motility impairment from 2nd/3rd week in 2 males, 1 female (main group) and in 4 females (with recovery) in the recovery group;
respiratory sounds (1 female, day 13)
- 12.5 mg/kg/day: no changes
- 3.25 mg/kg/day: no changes


BODY WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
- 50 mg/kg/day: approx. 10% decrease in body weight in males from day 11 onwards for about; the effect showed a tendency of recovery. Mean body weight was decreased in females from day 22 onwards, with clear subsequent recovery. Mean overall body weight gain over the study period was moderately affected.
- 12.5 mg/kg/day: Slight decrease (<5%) of mean body weight and mean overall body weight gain in males from day 22 onwards; the effects were considered not to be toxicologically relevant, since they were marginal and not recorded in females.
- 3.25 mg/kg/day: no significant changes


FOOD CONSUMPTION AND COMPOUND INTAKE
remained unaffected in all groups


HAEMATOLOGY
- 50 mg/kg/day: males: slightly increased haematocrit, slightly decreased reticulocyte counts, subsequent recovery; females: similar tendency without statistical significance. Slightly increased white blood cell counts with shift towards neutrophils in males and females (not stat. significant but
outside range of historical controls). All findings being reversible.
- 12.5 mg/kg/day: no significant changes
- 3.25 mg/kg/day: no significant changes


CLINICAL CHEMISTRY
50 mg/kg/day: increased total bilirubin in males and females, slightly increased urea nitrogen in females and ASAT and ALAT activity in males.
12.5 mg/kg/day: increased total bilirubin and slightly increased urea nitrogen in females.
3.25 mg/kg/day: increased total bilirubin in females

URINALYSIS
remained unaffected in all groups

NEUROBEHAVIOUR
- Open field observations, assessment of sensory function, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength not influenced in all groups.
- Negative trend in number of movements in males, but not significant and not present in females. Effect within the range of historical (inhouse)
controls, and thus, this was not considered to be related to treatment.

ORGAN WEIGHTS
- 50 mg/kg/day: Statistically significantly decrease of heart and brain weights in females and tendencially in males. Increase in relative adrenal weight (main group) and relative spleen weight (recovery group) in males. Since the effects were related to decreased terminal body weight and no histologically correlate was found, they are regarded to be no organ specific effects.
- 12.5 mg/kg/day: no changes
- 3.25 mg/kg/day: no changes

GROSS PATHOLOGY
No gross pathology findings attributable to administration of test compound in all dose groups.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NON-NEOPLASTIC
No histopathological findings which could be related to the administration of the test compound in all test groups. Sporadically observed changes occurred at an incidence and severity historically seen for rats of this age and strain.

HISTOPATHOLOGY: NEOPLASTIC
No neoplastic chages observed in any dose group.

Effect levels

Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
3.25 mg/kg bw/day (nominal)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: overall effects

Target system / organ toxicity

Critical effects observed:
not specified

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Conclusions:
Based on the test results the study director concluded that repeated administration of genamin OL 100 D at the high dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight per day induced general clinical signs, impairment of body weight gain and mild clinical pathology findings without histopathology correlates. It is concluded that the NOAEL from this valid oral 28-day study is 3.25 mg/kg body weight per day.
Executive summary:

Groups of five male and female SD-rats received octadecenylamine (Genamin OL 100 D, vehicle sesame oil) by oral gavage at dose levels of 0,3.25,12.5 or 50 mg/kg bw/day for a period of 28 days. On day 29 animals were necropsied. In the control and high dose groups, additional five male and females were examined and necropsied after a recovery period of 14 days. The study design and examinations conducted were in full accordance to the EU method B.7 (OECD 407) for subacute oral toxicity (including neurobehavioral observation and functional observation battery testing).

In a preliminary study on dose-range finding three males and females received the test substance at doses of 25, 100 and 400 mg/kg bw/d over a period of 14 days and surviving animals were necropsied on day 15. After administration of 400 mg/kg bw/d one male and one female died at days 4 and 7, respectively. The other animals of this dose group were killed for animal welfare reasons. The animals of the 100 mg/kg bw/d group showed clinical signs of impaired motility and respiration. The male animals were clearly more sensitive than the female animals. After administration of 25 mg/kg bw/d no symptoms were observed except of one female rat, which showed uncoordinated gait at study day 2. The body weight gains of animals exposed to doses of 25 and 100 mg/kd bw/d were impaired. Necropsy of the descendent and prior killed animals showed changes in the stomach and intestinal mucosa. The animals of 100 mg/kg bw/d showed reddening of the stomach mucosa. No macroscopically visible changes were observed in the 25 mg/kg dose groups.

In the main study, treatment resulted in no unscheduled deaths throughout the study. Behaviour and state of health remained unaffected by the administration of the test compound in the low and mid dose groups. Clinical findings in the high dose group (2 males and 5 females out of 10) from the 2nd or 3rd week onwards comprised impairments of motility (stilted and/or uncoordinated gait) and lasted until the end of treatment, with subsequent recovery. In addition, respiratory sounds were noted in one high dose female only on study day 13. No opacity of the refracting media of the eyes, changes of the oral mucosa, or impairment of dental growth was observed. No abnormal neurobehavior was observed in any group.

Mean body weight was significantly lower for high dose males from study day 11 and for high dose females from day 22 until the end of treatment, and remained to be different as compared to the controlat the end of recovery period. Also mean body weights for mid dose males were significantly lower from day 22 onwards to the end of treatment.

Compared to control animals, mean body weight gain was significantly lower at the end of treatment for high dose males (-19%), high dose females (-20%) and for mid dose males (-15%). A dose-dependent, small (-9%, statistically non-significant) reduction of body weight gain was also reported for the low dose males. The weight gain was normalised at the end of the recovery for high dose males or even higher in the high dose female group indicating a tendency to recovery (no recovery conducted for the mid dose group). Food consumption remained unaffected throughout the study in all dose groups.

Hematology findings in high dose groups included significantly increased hematocrit and decreased reticulocyte counts (males only) and slightly increased white blood cell counts with a shift towards increased neutrophils (both genders), all findings being reversible. Clinical chemistry changes comprised significantly increased total bilirubin for the high dose group, slightly increased urea nitrogen for mid and high dose females and very slightly increased ASAT and ALAT activity in the liver of high dose males. Urinalysis remained unaffected in all dose groups. Likewise the urine sediment was unobtrusive for control and high dose group animals.

No anatomic pathology correlates (organ weights, macroscopy, microscopy) of toxicological significance were detected.

In conclusion, repeated administration of Genamin OL 100 D (octadecenylamine) at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw/day induced clinical signs as gait abnormalities, reduction in body weight gain and clinical pathology findings indicating mild toxic effects on the liver and kidneys. The only treatment-related effects observed at the mid-dose level were reduction in growth and increased urinary concentration of urea nitrogen. By standard requirements on screening for neurotoxicology given for this type of study, stilted gait or uncoordinated gait was not associated with any other symptom of altered neurobehavior or neurotoxicity and may be discussed as being of unspecific nature. In the preliminary study, macroscopic findings in the gastrointestinal mucosa were observed in early deaths and in animals receiving 100 mg/kg bw/d, but were absent in animals at a dosage of 25 mg/kg bw/d from the 14-day study and in dose groups receiving 50 mg/kg bw/d.

Except for growth reduction, full recovery of findings was seen at the end of recovery period.

Based on the significantly reduced body growth at 12.5 mg/kg bw/d observed in the present 28-day study, the NOAEL of 3.25mg/kg bw/d was derived.