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Administrative data

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Effects on fertility

Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
screening for reproductive / developmental toxicity
Remarks:
based on test type (migrated information)
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted following OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. However, only limited data were available for review.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
no
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Sex:
male/female
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: not reported
- Age at study initiation: (P) 9 wks; (F1) 4 days
No further details provided.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on exposure:
No details reported.
Details on mating procedure:
No details reported.
Analytical verification of doses or concentrations:
not specified
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Male: 14 days before mating to the day before scheduled death through mating (total 32 days).
Female: 14 days before mating to 3 days after delivery through mating and gestation periods.
Frequency of treatment:
daily
Details on study schedule:
No details reported
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 1, 5, 20 mg/kg bw
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes
Details on study design:
For mating, one male to one female mating was used. A female rat was placed together with a male rat until copulation occurred. When no copulation was observed, the female animal was mated with another male animal of the same dose group for additional 14 days. Day 0 of gestation (GD 0) was defined as the day a vaginal plug or sperm was found.
Positive control:
No
Parental animals: Observations and examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes, twice daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes, males were weighed on Day 1 and 3 of dosing, and weekly thereafter. Females were weighed on Day 1, 3 and 7 of dosing, weekly thereafter until delivery, and PND 0 and 4.
Litter observations:
Clinical signs and body weights of the live pups were recorded.
Postmortem examinations (parental animals):
Autopsy at end of experiment.
Postmortem examinations (offspring):
Autopsy at end of experiment.
Statistics:
Statistical analysis : Bartlett's test, one-way analysis of variance, Dunnett's test, Kruskal-wallis test, chi-square test
Clinical signs:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
Salivation. Decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair .
Body weight and weight changes:
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
significant decrease in body weight females after parturition.
Food consumption and compound intake (if feeding study):
effects observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
significant decrease in body weight females after parturition.
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings: non-neoplastic:
not specified
Reproductive function: oestrous cycle:
not specified
Reproductive function: sperm measures:
not specified
Reproductive performance:
no effects observed
One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition.

CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Salivation was observed on the 4th day of administration and later in male and female rats at 5 mg/kg bw/day and higher. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter
BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on Day 3 in male animals and on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals.
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
No effects on days required for successful copulation, copulation index, fertility indices of males and females, implantation index, gestation length and delivery index.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: Effects seen at 20 mg/kg bw: death (2 females), significant decrease in food consumption, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, loss of hair and a significant decrease in body weight after parturition.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 20
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: no fertility effects observed
Clinical signs:
no effects observed
Mortality / viability:
mortality observed, treatment-related
Description (incidence and severity):
At 20 mg/kg, 18% of newborns were dead.
Body weight and weight changes:
no effects observed
Sexual maturation:
not specified
Organ weight findings including organ / body weight ratios:
not specified
Gross pathological findings:
not specified
Histopathological findings:
not specified
There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features.
The percentage of live newborns at birth was 97.7%, 98.4%, 100% and 85.4% for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively. The number of offspring per dam was 13.2, 14, 13.5 and 12.3 for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Generation:
F1
Effect level:
>= 20 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Sex:
male/female
Basis for effect level:
other: No effects seen at highest test concentration.
Reproductive effects observed:
not specified

Table 1. Mating and fertility findings in the reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.
============================================================
Parameter
                        Dose (mg/kg bw/day)
                          --------------------------------
                            0     1      5     20
-----------------------------------------------------------
[Male]
No. of animals mated
       10    10     10     11
No. of animals that copulated
                           10    10     10     10
No. of animals that produced pregnant female
                           10    10     10     10
-----------------------------------------------------------
[Female]
No. of animals mated
       10    10     10     10
No. of animals that copulated
                           10    10     10     10
No. of pregnant animals
    10    10     10     10
-----------------------------------------------------------
Duration of mating(days required for successful copulation)
 Mean                     3.0   2.7    3.2    4.7
 S.D.                    1.49   1.42   1.03   5.44
============================================================

Table 2. Postnatal outcomes in the reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.
============================================================
Parameter
                    Dose (mg/kg bw/day)
                     ----------------------------------
                      0        1         5       20
-----------------------------------------------------------
[Dam]
No. of dams
          10       10        10         9   
No. of dams delivered live newborns
                     10        9        10         8
Duration of pregnancy(day)
 Mean              22.0      22.0     21.8      22.3
 S.D.              0.00      0.50     0.42      0.46
No. of implantation sites 1)
                 141(14.1) 147(14.7) 148(14.8) 123(13.7)
-----------------------------------------------------------
[Newborns]
No. of newborns
  
 Total 2)       132(13.2) 126(14.0) 135(13.5)  98(12.3)
 Male            61        65        71        45
 Female          71        61        64        52
No. of stillborns
  0         0         0         1(Male)
Sex ratio of live newborns at birth (male/female)
                   61/71     65/61     71/64     44/52
No. of deads
         3         2         0        14
No. of live newborns on PND 4
 Total 3)       129(97.7) 124(98.4) 135(100)  82(85.4)
 Male 3)         58(95.1)  64(98.5)  71(100)   37(84.1)
 Female 3)       71(100)   60(98.4)  64(100)   45(86.5)
============================================================
1) The value in parentheses is the number of implantation sites per dam.
2) The value in parentheses is the number of total newborns per dam delivered live newborns.
3) The value in parentheses is percentage of live newborns at birth.

Table 3. External findings on newborns in the reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test of tetramethylammonium hydroxide.
============================================================
Parameter
                        Dose(mg/kg bw/day)
                      ------------------------------------
                           0      1      5      20
-----------------------------------------------------------
No. of dams
               10      9     10       8
-----------------------------------------------------------
[PND 0]
No. of newborns examined
 132    126    135      82
No. of newborns with abnormalities
                           0      0      0       0
-----------------------------------------------------------
[PND 4]
No. of newborns examined
 129    124    135      82
No. of newborns with abnormalities
                           0      0      0       0
============================================================

Conclusions:
In a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw. Since no effects were seen on fertility and development, the NOAELs for these endpoint were found to be >= 20 mg/kg bw.
Executive summary:

A reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test was performed with rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. TMAH was dosed by oral gavage at 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw. A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on Day 3 in male animals and on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter, and a significant decrease in body weight on days 0 and 4 after parturition (PND 0 and 4). One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide showed no effect on any of the following parental reproductive parameters; days required for successful copulation, copulation index, fertility indices of males and females, implantation index, gestation length and delivery index. There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features.

Based on these observations, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw/day and for reproduction/developmental toxicity >= 20 mg/kg bw/day in rats.
Effect on fertility: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
Study conducted following OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. Study is reliable (klimisch score = 1).
Effect on fertility: via inhalation route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Effect on fertility: via dermal route
Endpoint conclusion:
no study available
Additional information

A reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test was performed with rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. TMAH was dosed by oral gavage at 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw.A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on Day 3 in male animals and on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter, and a significant decrease in body weight on days 0 and 4 after parturition (PND 0 and 4). One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition.Tetramethylammonium hydroxide showed no effect on any of the following parental reproductive parameters; days required for successful copulation, copulation index, fertility indices of males and females, implantation index, gestation length and delivery index.There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features.

Based on these observations, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw/day and for reproduction/developmental toxicity >= 20 mg/kg bw/day in rats.


Short description of key information:
In a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw. Since no effects were seen on fertility and development, the NOAELs for these endpoint were found to be >= 20 mg/kg bw.

Justification for selection of Effect on fertility via oral route:
One study available.

Effects on developmental toxicity

Description of key information
In a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in rats, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw/d and for developmental toxicity >=20 mg/kg bw/d.
Link to relevant study records
Reference
Endpoint:
developmental toxicity
Type of information:
experimental study
Adequacy of study:
key study
Reliability:
2 (reliable with restrictions)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study conducted following OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. However, only limited data are available for review.
Reason / purpose:
reference to same study
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
other: OECD 421OECD Guideline 421 (Reproduction / Developmental Toxicity Screening Test)
GLP compliance:
yes
Limit test:
yes
Species:
rat
Strain:
Sprague-Dawley
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:
TEST ANIMALS
- Source: not reported
- Age at study initiation: (P) 9 wks; (F1) 4 days
No further details provided.
Route of administration:
oral: gavage
Vehicle:
water
Details on mating procedure:
One male to one female mating was used. A female rat was placed together with a male rat until copulation occurred. When no copulation was observed, the female animal was mated with another male animal of the same dose group for additional 14 days.
Duration of treatment / exposure:
Male: 14 days before mating to the day before scheduled death through mating (total 32 days).
Female: 14 days before mating to 3 days after delivery through mating and gestation periods.
Frequency of treatment:
Daily
Duration of test:
Females and pups were sacrificed at 4 days after birth.
Remarks:
Doses / Concentrations:
0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw
Basis:
actual ingested
No. of animals per sex per dose:
10
Control animals:
yes
Maternal examinations:
CAGE SIDE OBSERVATIONS: Yes

DETAILED CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS: Yes, twice daily

BODY WEIGHT: Yes, females were weighed on Day 1, 3 and 7 of dosing, weekly thereafter until delivery, and post natal day 0 and 4.
Ovaries and uterine content:
The ovaries and uterine content was examined after termination: No
Fetal examinations:
- External examinations and gross pathology: Yes, all per litter
Statistics:
Statistical analysis : Bartlett's test, one-way analysis of variance, Dunnett's test, Kruskal-wallis test, chi-square test.
Details on maternal toxic effects:
Maternal toxic effects:yes. Remark: Two females died, clinical effects were seen and decrease in weight gain.

Details on maternal toxic effects:
One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition.

CLINICAL SIGNS AND MORTALITY (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Salivation was observed on the 4th day of administration and later at 5 mg/kg bw/day and higher. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter
BODY WEIGHT AND FOOD CONSUMPTION (PARENTAL ANIMALS)
Significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals.
.
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
5 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: maternal toxicity
Dose descriptor:
NOAEL
Effect level:
>= 20 mg/kg bw/day (actual dose received)
Based on:
test mat.
Basis for effect level:
other: developmental toxicity
Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
Embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:yes. Remark: Lowered number of live newborns at birth

Details on embryotoxic / teratogenic effects:
There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features.
The percentage of live newborns at birth was 97.7%, 98.4%, 100% and 85.4% for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively. The number of offspring per dam was 13.2, 14, 13.5 and 12.3 for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively.
Abnormalities:
not specified
Developmental effects observed:
not specified
Conclusions:
In a reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test in rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles, the NOAEL for parents was found to be 5 mg/kg bw and the developmental NOAEL was found to be >= 20mg/kg bw.
Executive summary:

A reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test was performed with rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. TMAH was dosed by oral gavage at 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw.A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on Day 3 in male animals and on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter, and a significant decrease in body weight on days 0 and 4 after parturition (PND 0 and 4). One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition.Tetramethylammonium hydroxide showed no effect on any of the following parental reproductive parameters; days required for successful copulation, copulation index, fertility indices of males and females, implantation index, gestation length and delivery index.There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features. However, the percentage of live newborns at birth was 97.7%, 98.4%, 100% and 85.4% for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively.

Based on these observations, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw/day in rats. No effects on development were seen at the highest test concentration, therefore the developmental NOAEL was considered to be >= 20mg/kg bw.
Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route
Endpoint conclusion:
no adverse effect observed
Study duration:
subacute
Species:
rat
Quality of whole database:
Study conducted following OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. Study is reliable (klimisch score = 1).
Additional information

A reproductive/developmental toxicity screening test was performed with rats according to OECD guideline 421 and GLP principles. TMAH was dosed by oral gavage at 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw.A significant decrease in food consumption was observed at 20 mg/kg bw/day on Day 3 in male animals and on gestation day (GD) 20 in female animals. In the female animals at 20 mg/kg bw/day, a decrease in locomotor activity, incomplete eyelid opening or eyelid closure, and loss of hair were observed on GD 21 and thereafter, and a significant decrease in body weight on days 0 and 4 after parturition (PND 0 and 4). One female rat at 20 mg/kg bw/day died on GD 22 and another one on GD 23 during parturition.Tetramethylammonium hydroxide showed no effect on any of the following parental reproductive parameters; days required for successful copulation, copulation index, fertility indices of males and females, implantation index, gestation length and delivery index.There was no effect of tetramethylammonium hydroxide on either the numbers of total newborns, sex ratio. No compound-related abnormality was observed either in external features. However, the percentage of live newborns at birth was 97.7%, 98.4%, 100% and 85.4% for 0, 1, 5 and 20 mg/kg bw respectively.

Based on these observations, the NOAEL for parental toxicity was found to be 5 mg/kg bw/day and for developmental toxicity was >=20 mg/kg bw/d in rats.

Justification for selection of Effect on developmental toxicity: via oral route:
One study available.

Justification for classification or non-classification

Based on the available data, TMAH is not classified for reproduction toxicity according to CLP Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008.