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Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Description of key information

Key Value has been selected from Seeland et al. publication representing a clearly more sensitive species of daphnids (non-standard test organism).

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Fresh water invertebrates

Fresh water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
0.4 mg/L

Marine water invertebrates

Marine water invertebrates
Effect concentration:
10 mg/L

Additional information

Three long-term freshwater studies according to OECD guideline 211 with two different daphnid species have been available showing an analogue tendency like the short-term studies. The study using D. galeata present a clearly lower effect concentration compared to the much larger D. magna. Although keeping in mind that this is a non-standard organism the EC10 has been selected as a point of departure for the further assessment. In just one study with D. magna a effect concentration has been determined (Caspers, 1991). Most likely the absence of observable effects in the second study by Seeland et al. is caused by the selection of a too low concentration range.

In addition to the freshwater studies also observations with marine species have been available. Developmental toxicity of benzotriazole to Ciona intestinalis has been examined by Kadar et al. (Kadar, 2010). Due to absence of relevant guidelines a "guideline-like" approach has been used for the experimental observations. Adult organisms have been collected from Millbay Marina, Plymouth and cultured. Subsequent the gamete have been collected and in vitro fertilized. After 48 h, the NOEC and LOEC have been determined to be 10 and 32 mg/L, respectively, based on morphological development of the embryos.

Kadar E, Dashfield S, and Hutchinson TH, Developmental toxicity of benzotriazole in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiae), Anal Bioanal Chem (2010) 396:641 -647.