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Ecotoxicological information

Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates

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Administrative data

Endpoint:
short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates
Type of information:
migrated information: read-across from supporting substance (structural analogue or surrogate)
Adequacy of study:
key study
Study period:
2011-10-12 to 2011-10-18
Reliability:
1 (reliable without restriction)
Rationale for reliability incl. deficiencies:
other: Study performed under GLP according to OECD guideline. Read-across justification is given in the read-across document attached in IUCLID Section 13.

Data source

Reference
Reference Type:
study report
Title:
Unnamed
Year:
2012
Report Date:
2012

Materials and methods

Test guideline
Qualifier:
according to
Guideline:
OECD Guideline 202 (Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test)
Deviations:
no
GLP compliance:
yes

Test material

Reference
Name:
Unnamed
Type:
Constituent
Type:
Constituent
Details on test material:
- Physical state: liquid, colourless, slightly viscous
- Storage condition of test material: Room temperature, protected from light, in original container

Sampling and analysis

Analytical monitoring:
yes
Details on sampling:
- Concentrations: The test item Hostapon SG was analytically verified based on the C12- and the C14 fraction of the test item by LC-MS/MS in the fresh media (0 h) and old media (48 h) of all concentration levels and the control.
- Sampling method: For the old media, separate replicates without test organisms were prepared and incubated under test conditions.
- Sample storage conditions before analysis: All samples were stored at room temperature until start of analysis.

Test solutions

Vehicle:
no
Details on test solutions:
PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF TEST SOLUTION (especially for difficult test substances)
- Method: For each test concentration, a separate stock solution was freshly prepared in dilution water. For details see table
Preparation of the test concentrations
Stock solution /
Test concentration
[mg/L] 18.75 37.5 75.0 150 300
Volume of
stock solution
[mL] 2000 1000 500 500 500
Weighing of
test item
[mg] 37.5 37.5 37.5 75.0 150.0

- Eluate: Hostapon SG is a long chain carboxylic acid forming Calcium salt with very low solubility removing most of the test item from the aqueous solution. The recovery of the test item at the end of the test (48 h) is therefore very low. To overcome this testing issue Elendt M4 medium, according to ELENDT (1990), modified to a total hardness of approximately 140 mg CaCO3/L was used.
- Differential loading: 18.75 - 37.5 - 75.0 - 150 - 300 mg/L
- Controls: Dilution water without test item tested under the same conditions as the test groups.
- Chemical name of vehicle (organic solvent, emulsifier or dispersant): None

Test organisms

Test organisms (species):
Daphnia magna
Details on test organisms:
TEST ORGANISM
- Common name: Daphnia magna (STRAUS)
- Strain: Clone 5
- Source: Institut für Wasser-, Boden- Lufthygiene (WaBoLu), further own breeding
- Age at study initiation (mean and range, SD): 2 to 24 h
- Method of breeding: In glass vessels (2 - 3 L capacity) with approximately 1.8 L culture medium, at 20+/- 2 °C, in an incubator, 16 h illumination, illumination strength max. 20 µE*m-2*s-1. Culture medium: Elendt M4, according to ELENDT (1990), modified to a total hardness of 160 to 180 mg CaCO3/L. Culture Feeding: At least 5 times per week ad libitum with a mix of unicellular green algae, e.g. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Desmodesmus subspicatus and Chlorella vulgaris, with an algae cell density of > 106 cells/mL.
- Feeding during test: No feeding

ACCLIMATION
- Acclimation period: 2 h
- Acclimation conditions (same as test or not): Same as test
- Type and amount of food: No feeding
- Health during acclimation (any mortality observed): Healthy, no mortality observed


Study design

Test type:
static
Water media type:
freshwater
Limit test:
no
Total exposure duration:
48 h
Post exposure observation period:
No

Test conditions

Hardness:
Dilution water: 141 (mg CaCO3/L)
Test temperature:
20.5 °C.

pH:
Water Quality Parameters at Test Start (0 h, Fresh Media)
(measured in one replicate per concentration level and control)
Hostapon SG
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] pH-Value



300 8.07
150 8.01
75.0 7.99
37.5 7.97
18.75 7.97
Control 8.36

Water Quality Parameters at Test End (48 h, Old Media)
(measured in all replicates)
Hostapon SG
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] pH-Values
Replicates
1 2 3 4
300 7.46 7.50 7.61 7.55
150 7.41 7.47 7.38 7.47
75.0 7.44 7.26 7.33 7.39
37.5 7.77 7.72 7.69 7.30
18.75 7.65 7.74 7.71 7.79
Control 7.79 7.78 7.90 7.86
Dissolved oxygen:
Water Quality Parameters at Test Start (0 h, Fresh Media)
(measured in one replicate per concentration level and control)
Hostapon SG
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] Dissolved
O2-Concentration

[mg/L]
300 9.20
150 9.20
75.0 9.25
37.5 9.26
18.75 9.27
Control 9.38

Water Quality Parameters at Test End (48 h, Old Media)
(measured in all replicates)
Hostapon SG
Nominal
Test Item
Concentration
[mg/L] Dissolved O2 -Concentration [mg/L]
Replicates
1 2 3 4
300 5.99 6.16 6.07 6.14
150 5.08 5.99 5.55 5.68
75.0 6.40 4.55 4.67 5.46
37.5 8.09 8.02 8.01 6.64
18.75 8.69 8.55 8.54 8.54
Control 8.84 8.95 8.81 8.80
Salinity:
Freshwater
Nominal and measured concentrations:
Please refer to "Any other information on materials and methods"
Details on test conditions:
TEST SYSTEM
- Test vessel: Glass beakers, 50 mL
- Material, size, headspace, fill volume: Glass beakers (4 cm ID x 7 cm H), 50 mL
- Aeration: No
- Renewal rate of test solution (frequency/flow rate): One application at test start, static test
- No. of organisms per vessel: 5
- No. of vessels per concentration (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per control (replicates): 4
- No. of vessels per vehicle control (replicates): None


TEST MEDIUM / WATER PARAMETERS
- Source/preparation of dilution water:
according to ELENDT (1990)
Component Concentration [mg/L]
CaCl2 x 2 H2O 147
MgSO4 x 7 H2O 123
KCl 5.80
NaHCO3 64.8
Na2SiO3 4.30
NaNO3 0.27
KH2PO4 0.14
K2HPO4 0.18
Na2EDTA x 2 H2O 5.00
FeSO4 x 7 H2O 1.99
H3BO3 0.29
MnCl2 x 4 H2O 0.36
LiCl 0.30
SrCl2 x 6 H2O 0.15
RbCl 0.071
NaBr 0.016
Na2MoO4 x 2 H2O 0.063
CuCl x 2 H2O 0.017
ZnCl2 0.013
CoCl2 x 6 H2O 0.010
KJ 0.00325
Na2SeO3 0.00219
NH4VO3 0.000575
Thiaminhydrochloride 0.075
Cyanocobalamine 0.0010
Biotin 0.00075
pH 8.2 +/- 0.8




- Culture medium different from test medium: No
- Intervals of water quality measurement: At test start and test end


OTHER TEST CONDITIONS
- Adjustment of pH: No
- Photoperiod: 16:8 light:dark cycle
- Light intensity: Diffuse light, illumination strength max. 20 µE x m-2 x s-1


EFFECT PARAMETERS MEASURED (with observation intervals if applicable) :
IImmobility was determined in all groups after 24 and 48 h. An animal was considered to be immobile, if it was not able to swim within 15 sec after gentle agitation of the test vessel.

TEST CONCENTRATIONS
- Range finding study: none


Reference substance (positive control):
yes
Remarks:
Potassium dichromate

Results and discussion

Effect concentrationsopen allclose all
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
NOEC
Effect conc.:
1.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
LOEC
Effect conc.:
3.7 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC10
Effect conc.:
1.9 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC50
Effect conc.:
2.8 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Remarks on result:
other: 2.5-3.4 (95% CI)
Duration:
48 h
Dose descriptor:
EC100
Effect conc.:
7.4 mg/L
Nominal / measured:
meas. (arithm. mean)
Conc. based on:
act. ingr.
Basis for effect:
mobility
Details on results:
- Behavioural abnormalities: None
- Mortality of control: 0%
- Other adverse effects control: None
- Abnormal responses: None
- Any observations (e.g. precipitation) that might cause a difference between measured and nominal values: None
Results with reference substance (positive control):
- Results with reference substance valid? Yes
EC50 : 1.47 mg/L (CI 1.34 - 1.61 mg/L)
Reported statistics and error estimates:
EC10- and EC50-values were calculated by sigmoidal dose-response regression. The confidence intervals were calculated from the best-fit values, the standard error and the t-distribution with the software GraphPad prism. The concentration effect relationships are shown graphically.

Any other information on results incl. tables

Immobilization Rates of the Definitive Test after 24 and 48 h of Exposure

                 (n = 20, divided into 4 replicates with 5 daphnids each)

Hostapon SG

IMMOBILIZATION [%]

Nominal

Test Item

Concentration

Half of the

Nominal

Test Item

Concentration

24 h

48 h

Replicates

Replicates

[mg/L]

[mg/L]

1.

2.

3.

4.

MV

1.

2.

3.

4.

MV

300

150

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

150

  75.0

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

  75.0

  37.5

100

  80

100

  80

  90

100

100

100

100

100

  37.5

  18.75

  40

  60

  60

100

  65

  40

  60

  80

100

  70

  18.75

    9.375

    0

    0

    0

  20

    5

    0

    0

    0

  20

    5

Control

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

    0

Applicant's summary and conclusion

Validity criteria fulfilled:
yes
Conclusions:
Based on half of the nominal concentrations of the test item Hostapon SG the 48-h EC50 for Daphnia magna was estimated to be 14.3 mg/L (95 % confidence limits: 12.5 – 16.9 mg/L), which corresponds to 2.8 mg a.i./L (95 % confidence limits: 2.48 – 3.35 mg a.i./L), nominal content of 19.8 % taken into account.
The NOEC after 48 h was determined to be 9.4 mg/L, which corresponds to 1.9 mg a.i./L. The LOEC after 48 h was determined to be 18.8 mg/L, which corresponds to 3.7 mg a.i./L.
Executive summary:

In the acute immobilization test with Daphnia magna (STRAUS) the effects of the test item Hostapon SG (batch number: ESD 0006364) were determined according to OECD 202 (2004) from 2011-10-12 to 2011-10-18, with the definitive exposure phase from 2011-10-14 to 2011-10-16, at Dr.U.Noack-Laboratorien, Käthe-Paulus-Str.1, 31157 Sarstedt, Germany.

The study was conducted under static conditions over a period of 48 h with 5concentrations of the liquid test item Hostapon SG (19.8 % w/w active ingredient) ranging from 18.75 to 300 mg/L set up in a geometric series with a dilution factor of 2. Twenty daphnids were exposed to each concentration level and the control.

The concentrations of the C12- and C14-fraction of the test item Hostapon SG were analytically verified by LC-MS/MS in the fresh (0 h) and old media (48 h) of all concentration levels and the control.

Hostapon SG is a long chain carboxylic acid similar to fatty acids forming calcium salt with very low solubility removing most of the test item from the aqueous solution by precipitation. The recovery of the test item at the end of the test (48 h) is very low and the guideline quality criteria for the analytical recovery are no longer fulfilled. To reduce the precipitation of Calcium salts, the total hardness in the Elendt M4 medium (B.P. Elendt, 1990), was set to a total hardness of approximately 140 mg CaCO3/L still acceptable to achieve valid results.

The recoveries of the C12-fraction were in the range of 84 to 115 % of the nominal values in the fresh media (0 h) and 1 to 3 % in the old media (48 h). Recoveries of the C14-fraction were in the range of 84 to 114 % of the nominal values in the fresh media (0 h) and 2 to 7 % in the old media (48 h).

The test item concentrations at the beginning of the test were in the range of 84 to 115 % and at test end after 48 h below 80 % of the nominal concentrations even below 1 mg a.i./L for C12-and C14-fraction. It is assumed that the test item concentration at the test end is 0 mg/L and the test item concentration over the full 48h test period is the average concentration at test start and end (half nominal concentration).The results derived with this approach can be compared with the results from a 48h daphnia study with EDTA where the Calcium ions were complexed and no precipitation of Calcium salts were observed. As the test item was not removed by precipitation and the recoveries were in the acceptable range at test start and test end, the exposure over the test period can be regarded as maximum (Clariant, 2011). The EC50(48h) of the study with EDTA is 6.5 mg/L active ingredient which is a factor of 2.3 higher than the EC50 (48h) in this study without EDTA. It can therefore be concluded that the evaluation of this study without EDTA using a half nominal approach can be regarded as a conservative.

The endpoint assessment based on mean measured concentrations is not possible, because the toxicity cannot be attributed to any single compound of the test item Hostapon SG containing different C-chains of the N-Cocoyl glycine sodium salt. The endpoints are also given as active ingredient based on the amount of 19.8 % in the aqueous solution.

The water quality parameters (pH-value and dissolved oxygen concentration), measured at 0 and 48 h, were determined to be within the acceptable limits. The validity criteria of the test guideline were fulfilled.

Table 1:    EC10-, EC50- (with Confidence Interval), EC100 - Values, NOEC and LOEC

                   (based on half of the nominal test item concentrations of Hostapon SG)

Endpoints

(with 95 % confidence limits)

Test

Duration

[h]

Half of the Nominal Concentration of the

Test Item

Hostapon SG

[mg/L]

Active Substance

(19.8 % w/w)

[mg a.i./L]

EC10

24

  9.8 (Cl: n.a.)

  1.9 (Cl: n.a.)

48

  9.8 (Cl: n.a.)

  1.9 (Cl: n.a.)

EC50

24

15.1 (Cl: 12.9 - 18.1)

  3.0 (Cl: 2.55 - 3.58)

48

14.3 (Cl: 12.5 - 16.9)

  2.8 (Cl: 2.48 - 3.35)

EC100

24

75.0

14.9

48

37.5

  7.4

NOEC

48

  9.4

  1.9

LOEC

48

18.8

  3.7