Registration Dossier

Administrative data

Link to relevant study record(s)

Description of key information

The toxicokinetic assessment for substances of the Persulfate Category was carried out according to REACH Regulation, Annex VIII, Column I, Sect. 8.8.1, and based on available data. The substances of the Persulfate Category rapidly hydrolyse upon contact with water. The substances degrade and will eventually form the corresponding cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium) and persulfate anions. The persulfate anion, independent of the cation, undergoes further decomposition upon contact with water to form sulfate species. Based on these fundamental properties of persulfates, they are not likely to become bioavailable, neither by inhalation, ingestion, or contact by skin. All degradation products are physiologically essential to organisms. Bioaccumulation is unlikely in view of the rapid degradation and high water solubility.

Key value for chemical safety assessment

Bioaccumulation potential:
no bioaccumulation potential

Additional information

The toxicokinetic assessment for substances of the Persulfate Category was carried out according to REACH Regulation, Annex VIII, Column I, Sect. 8.8.1, and based on available data. The Persulfate Category includes discrete chemicals with similar chemical structures sharing the same representative moiety, i.e. the persulfate anion. The inorganic compounds differ only by the cationic part of the salt. All category members exhibit similar physico-chemical properties. The cationic part is not expected to influence the hazardous properties of the molecule. The anionic part is identical and, therefore, the three salts are expected to display the same environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological behaviour. Persulfate salts rapidly hydrolyse upon contact with water or water vapour. As a consequence thereof, persulfates will rapidly degrade and will eventually form the corresponding cations (ammonium, potassium, sodium) and persulfate anions. The persulfate anion, independent of the cation, undergoes further decomposition upon contact with water to form sulfate species. Based on these fundamental properties of persulfates, they are not likely to become bioavailable, neither by inhalation, ingestion, or contact by skin. Toxicokinetics and dynamics will be influenced mainly by the persulfate anion. The dissociation products K+, Na+ are not further degraded. All ions are physiologically essential to organisms. The ammonium ion, NH4+, is anticipated to either be excreted or incorporated into the nitrogen pool of organisms. The persulfate anion further oxidises water to generate reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and sulfate ion radicals. A decrease in pH would be expected from the hydrolysis of the persulfate moiety, but systemic effects would be inconsequential in the presence of physiologic buffer systems. Hydrogen peroxide, if formed, would be rapidly metabolised to oxygen and water by catalase and peroxidase enzymes. Although catalase and glutathione peroxidise enzymes are intracellular, hydrogen peroxide can readily penetrate biological membranes at a level comparable to that of water. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide is rapidly decomposed by mammalian tissues. There is practically no potential for bioaccumulation.