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Environmental fate & pathways

Endpoint summary

Administrative data

Description of key information

Additional information

INTRODUCTION

Overview of the dataset

A total of thirty-five study summaries are recorded under monitoring data in environment. Among them, twenty references were assessed by reliability (2), four references by reliability (3) and eleven references by reliability (4).

Interpretation of monitoring data

Emphasis was put only on reliable sources [reliability (2)], thus studies assessed by a reliability (3) or (4) are not further discussed below. Care must be taken when using monitoring data for various reasons:

-In general, the studies were not performed according to standard procedures; therefore interpretation needs to be performed by expert judgment.

-As a consequence, data were generated with specific number of sampling repetition and analytical determination replicates. Where it was possible, the number of data is recorded in tables below.

-Considering the widespread uses of TBEP and that presence of TBEP was revealed in tap water, specific attention must be given to cleaning procedures of test vessels and materials and to the source of water to be used.

-Limits of detection/quantification were indicated below when they were available.

TBEP MONITORING DATA

Concentration of TBEP in water

The presence of TBEP is demonstrated in various water compartments.

TBEP was quantified in tap water with minimum value of 11.0 ng/L and maximum value of 5,400 ng/L; very high values of TBEP concentrations were attributed to o-ring and seal (Lebel and Williams, 1983).

In surface water, TBEP minimum and maximum concentrations are found at 10 ng/L (Andresen et al., 2004) and 663 ng/L (Fries and Puttmann, 2001), respectively.

Compartment

Location

Period

Concentration of TBEP (ng/L)

Mean or range

Remarks

Reference

Water,

Tap water

Canada,

Ontario

Not reported

Laboratory:

11.0-5,400

Kitchen:

11.0 -34.9

LOQ not reported.

Data obtained from tap water sampled in laboratory (N=4) or private residence (kitchen, N=6). Maximum concentration was found in grab samples from laboratory tap water. The O-ring and seal in the tap water were identified as the source of TBEP.

Lebel & Williams, 1983

Water,

Surface water (River)

Germany,

Ruhr River

2002 -07 & 2002-09

10-200

LOQ=6.4 ng/L

Andresen et al, 2004

Water,

Surface water (River)

Germany,

Ruhr River

Not reported

150

LOQ=3 ng/L

Six determinations (N=6) ranging from 140 to 170 ng/L.

Andresen & Bester, 2006

Water,

Surface water (River)

Germany,

(1)Rhine River

(2)Elbe River

(3)Main River

(4)Oder River

(5)Nidda River

(6)Schwarzbavh River

2000-03

 and

2000-11

 

(1)321

(2)103-494

(3)201-386

(4)431-471

(5)543-663

(6)261-281

LOQ=1 ng/L

Data obtained on water sampled in 6 locations at 2 occasions (N=12). Analytical determinations performed on extracts of 5-L samples

Fries & Puttmann, 2001

Water, Groundwater

Germany,

Küstrin

From 2000-03

To 2000-11

1-2,010

LOQ=1 ng/L

Data obtained on groundwater sampled in one location at 1 occasion (N=2). Analytical determinations performed on extracts of 5-L samples

Fries & Puttmann, 2001

Water,

Surface water

USA,

Arkansas

2004-03

and 2004-08

<500

LOD=0.5 µg/L

Data obtained on water sampled in 18 locations on March, April and August 2004.

Haggard et al., 2006

Water,

Rain

Germany,

Frankfurt

 2000 -11

 393

LOQ=1 ng/L

N=1.

Fries & Puttmann, 2001

Concentration of TBEP in sewage treatment plant

Several studies record concentrations of TBEP in STP influent and/or effluent, located in different countries (Canada, Germany, Sweden and USA). The source and level of contamination of the locations are insufficiently detailed in the studies.

The minimum concentration in STP influent is 9.8 ng/L (Lebel et al., 1987), the maximum concentration being 35,000 ng/L (Marklund et al., 2005), depending on locations. TBEP concentrations in effluent waters can remain high depending on STP efficiency and kind of treatment. The minimum concentration in effluent is 0.2 (Lebel et al., 1987) and the maximum concentration being 11,000 ng/L (Marklund et al., 2005).

The concentration of TBEP is significantly reduced in STP effluent by comparison to STP influent (Lebel et al., 1987; Fries and Putmann, 2001; Marklund et al., 2005; Meyer and Bester, 2005; Andresen and Bester, 2006). The percentage elimination ranged from 61.5% up to 98.0%. These value confirm the calculated values that predicted more than 80% removal in STP.

Compartment

Location

Period

Concentration of TBEP (ng/L)

% Elimination or % Eff/Inf ratio

Remark

 Reference

Water,

STP

(drinking water assumed to be effluent)

Canada,

Ontario

From 1978-06

to 1978-10

0.9-75.4

N/A

Detection limits not stated.

Data obtained from 6 plants sampled on 2 occasions (N=12).

% elimination or %Eff/Inf ratio cannot be calculated

Lebel et al., 1981

Water,

STP

(raw water & treated water)

Canada,

Ontario

(Great Lakes region)

Summer

 (year not stated)

---------

Winter

(year not stated)

Location 2:

Raw: 9.8

Treated: 0.2

Location 3:

Raw: 54.4 Treated: 11.0

-------------------

Location 3:

Raw: 16.6

Treated: 6.4

Location 5:

Raw: 10.7

Treated: 3.6

Location 2:

Eff/Inf 98.0%

Location 3:

89.8%

------------------

Location 3:

61.5%

Location 5:

66.4%

Detection limits not stated.

Data obtained from 5 locations sampled on 2 occasions (N=8):

-in 2 locations, TBEP was not detected

-in 1 location, TBEP was detected in summer sample

-in one location TBEP was detected in winter sample.

% Eff/Inf ratio were calculated here (not reported in the publication)

Lebel et al., 1987

Water,

STP

(influent & effluent)

Germany,

Frankfurt

(Main River)

2000-11

Inf.:

12,762

Eff.:

542

95.75%

LOQ=1 ng/L

Data obtained from 1 location sampled on 1 occasion (N=2). Analytical determination performed on extracts of 5-L samples.

% Eff/Inf ratio were calculated here (not reported in the publication)

 Fries & Puttmann, 2001

Water,

STP

(influent & effluent)

Germany, North Rhine Westphalia

2003

STP (A)

Inf.: 3,700 -6,100

Eff.: 440 -790

STP (B)

Inf.: 4,000 -8,000

Eff.: 400 -1,200

STP (A)

84 +/-6 %

STP (B) 

89 +/-9 %

LOD=1.3 ng/L

Samples were automatically taken as 24 -h composite samples. Mean and max values are reported.

STP (A): a 2 -stage biological treatment proc; 220,000 m3/d; 1,100,000 eq inhab

STP (B): single activated sludge; 108,959 m3/d; 1,090,000 eq inhab.

% eliminations were recorded in the publication.

Meyer & Bester, 2005

Water,

STP

(effluent)

Germany,

Ruhr River

Not reported

Waterworks (A):

<3

Waterworks (B):

<3

Waterworks (C):

N/A

(A):

>=98.0%

(B):

>=97.9%

(C):

N/A

LOQ=3ng/L

Data were obtained from 3 waterworks sampled on 5 occasions.

% Eff/Inf ratio were calculated here (not reported in the publication)

 Andresen & Bester, 2006

Water,

STP

(influent & effluent)

Sweden

2003

Influent :

5,200-35,000

Effluent :

3,100 -11,000

Sludge :

<1,900 ng/g dw

%Eff/Inf ratio:

77%

%degr:

20%

LOD=1.8 ng/L

Data were obtained from 11 sewage treatment plants. Samples represent week average.

%ratio were calculated on an annual basis and according to:

-%Eff/Inf ratio:

(Eff amount / Inf amount)*100

-%degr: 

[(sludge amount + Eff Amount - Inf amount) / Inf amount]*100

(results reported in the publication)

Marklund et al., 2005a

Water,

STP

USA, Minnesota

(Mississippi river basin)

From 2000-10

to 2000-11

Frequency detection:

17.2%

STP conc.:

110 -5,300

N/A

Data were obtained during a monitoring survey including 65 sites.

 Lee et al., 2001
 Water, STP  Germany, Ruhr basin  2002 -07 & 2002 -09  Up to: 500

N/A

 LOQ=6.4 ng/L  Andresen et al, 2004

Concentration of TBEP in air

Compartment

Location

Period

Concentration of TBEP

(air: ng/m3; dust: g/kg)

Remark

Reference

Air,

Indoor (house)

Japan,

Tokyo

April and May (year not stated)

2/6 houses:

10-30 (air)

4/6 houses:

< LOD (air)

LOD=0.4 ng/m3

Data were obtained from six houses (N=6). Ca. 4.3 m3 of air were sampled, extracted and analysed.

Otake et al., 2001

Air,

Indoor (air dust)

Sweden

(Buildings)

Not reported

0.014 to 5.3 (dust)

LOD=0.03 ng/kg

Data were obtained from dust bags collected from conventional vacuum cleaners in 16 various buildings (N=16).

Marklund et al., 2003

Air, Indoor

(various kind of building)

Sweden

(Buildings)

During daytime

Home (min.):

0.6 (air)

Prison (max.):

55 (air)

LOD=0.4 ng/m3

Data were obtained in air sampled in 17 buildings (N=17)

Marklund et al., 2005b

Air, Indoor

(office building)

USA, New Jersey (Holmdel)

From 1978-01 to 1978-08

Not detected

-

Weschler, 1980

Air, Indoor & Outdoor

(office buildings)

USA, Kansas (Wichita)

and Texas (Lubbock)

In 1981 and 1982

Indoor :

4-25 (air)

Outdoor :

<LOD (air)

-

Weschler, 1984

Concentration of TBEP in biota

TBEP was not detected in any of the samples analyzed (Evenset et al., 2009).

Compartment

Location

Period

Concentration of TBEP

(ng/g)

Remarks

Reference

Biota,

Fish and birds

(whole body)

Arctic (Barents Sea, coast of Spitsbergen)

From 2004

to 2008

Fish:

<6.0 (ww)

Birds:

<1.5 (dw)

SFT Program

Data were obtained from three species of fish Gadus morhua (N=8), Boreogadus saida (N=12), Salvelinus alpinus (N=5) and two species of seabirds Rissa tridactyla (N=8) and Somateria mollissima (N=5)

Evenset et al., 2009

INTERPRETATION

Defining key studies

Surface water: Fries and Puttmann, 2001; Andressen and Bester, 2006.

STP: Lee et al., 2001;Marklund et al., 2005a; Meyer and Bester, 2005; Andresen and Bester, 2006.

Air: Otake et al., 2001; Marklund et al., 2005b.

Biota: Evenset et al., 2006.

Ability of data to relate environment exposure to TBEP

Surface water: releases of TBEP are demonstrated. No seasonal trend observed. Significant geographical variation.

STP: there are indications of widespread uses of domestic articles (STP investigated mainly domestic ones).

Biota: indication of low potential for long-range air transportation.